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  • Figure 1. Diagram of this PhD’s associated research network, collaborators and case study city of Vejle (i.e. my involvement with Vejle Municipality and Kanten/The Edge design competition). My involvement and direct associations are the nodes that are coloured. 

  • Figure 2. A general structure of the PhD dissertation/monograph for the reader to follow. 

  • Figure 3. The PhD monograph intends to be read in digital format, especially for Part IV – research-through design via network Kumu mapping.  (Top image) - The screenshot of the main PhD monograph as a website version. (Mid and bottom images) – The screenshot of the three Kumu maps developed for this research. URL of the PhD website: (hosted via Wix: 

  • Figure 4. (Top image) The impact of Storm Malik on the city of Vejle, the water level in the fjord peaked around 11 o'clock at 144 centimetres above the average water level, which is not enough to inundate the city of Vejle in Denmark but close to its tipping point (Anholm, 2022; DMI, 2022a). The current elevation above the normal water level in Vejle is roughly around 150-160cm (SCALGO, n.d.). Image credit: (DMI, 2022a). (Bottom image) Before and After Storm Malik’s photo in the town of Aalbæk, Denmark, where water levels reached above the ‘tipping point’ over the harbour pathway (Payne, Anker Pedersen and Fonseca, 2022). Image credit: (Bottom Left) Jørgen Larsen /ANB (Bernhus, 2014) and (Bottom Right) Inger Nielsen (Payne, Anker Pedersen and Fonseca, 2022). 

  • Figure 5. (Top left image) A map showing the 14 risk areas in the EU’s coastal directives (mainly concentrated around the middle of the South-Eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, outlined in a blue dashed circle) Image credit: Danish Coastal Authority/Kystdirektoratet (2019) and Miljøministeriet Kystdirektoratet (n.d.). (Top right image) The municipality of Vejle is highlighted in yellow, among the East Jutland area is in red. Image credit: Edited from Ita (2008). (Bottom image) There are four main Danish coastal typologies: Coastal typologies in relation to storm surge type (COWI 2017). From left to right: Type 1 – Deep fjord with river estuary (in Danish Tragten); Type 2 – Bay with elevated hinterland (in Danish Skålen); Type 3 – Bay with low-lying hinterland (in Danish Den diffuse skål); Type 4: Cliff (in Danish forhøjningen) Image credit: (Faragò et al., 2018)  (Information extracted from the Kumu Multiscalar map – National scale node). 

  • Figure 6. (Top image) Vejle faces several water issues from the fjord/sea in the form of storm surges (exacerbated by sea-level rise), rise in groundwater and the water coming down from the hills due to its location at the bottom of the river valley where the two rivers/streams meet. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020a). (Second-row image) A diagram showing the dynamic of the water in Vejle. There is water coming in from the fjord, which presses into the Vejle stream and also causes the stormwater drainage system to overflow and spill over. The water coming down from uphill through the streams spill over onto the land in a storm surge and cloudburst event. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020). (Third row) The Coastal Directorate's delineation of the risk area in Vejle in 2018 in blue shows the entire river valley as a vulnerable area to flooding. Fjordbyen is one of Vejle town centre's four main boroughs. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020a). (Bottom image) A visualization of Vejle at a 100-year storm surge event in 2050 inundating most of Fjordbyen, calculated to cost more than 750 million Danish kroners for damages (equivalent to 100 million euros) (Vejle Municipality, 2020a). Fjordbyen, like many other Danish waterfront/harbourfront developments, has been undergoing major transformation; where the past decade, there has been continual construction of new high-density housing, businesses, infrastructure and recreational areas. These newly developed areas pose challenges from rising sea levels and storm surges and are critical areas that can be challenged for testing alternative ways to co-exist with water. Image credits: Vejle Municipality (2020a).  Extracted from the Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten and Fjordbyen scale node. 

  • Figure 7. The two zones and edge conditions were allocated for intervention by Kanten/The Edge design competition brief. The security line in Fjordbyen are green lines, and the two zones are: The Urban Zone (Havnepladsen – Habour Square) and The Nature Zone (Tirsbæk Strandvej – Beach Road). Image credit: (Vejle Municipality, 2020a).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten scale node). 

  • Figure 8. (Top half of the images) Underwater photos from the Sund Vejle Fjord project to revive the fish population, reinstate stone reefs, restore eelgrass, clean the polluted water via blue mussels on the seabed and as floating lines. Sund Vejle Fjord mainly works with areas closer to the coastline, in the mid-outer part of the Vejle fjord, where it is less prone to eutrophication and shows more signs of life as the shallow depth allows the marine life forms better access to sunlight. Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.).  (Bottom half of the images) 70-hour underwater footage from the Sund Vejle Fjord project largely shows the condition of the Vejle fjord as a dark, largely lifeless, muddy desert with old fishing lines and an unbalanced food chain.  Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjord scale node). 

  • Figure 9. (Top left image) Current projects by Sund Vejle Fjord to reinstate the stone reefs are highlighted in yellow. Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.). (Top right image) The current limited stone reef status (before Sund Vejle Fjord Project) in the fjord. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2021).  (Bottom image) Most forms of coastal vegetation are sparsely spread out in the shallower waters near the coastline. Image credit: DHI (2019). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjord scale node).



  • Figure 10. (Top image) The sediment map of Vejle fjord shows that it is largely a mud substrate making it difficult for marine life to grow (the mud also makes it easily murky when it rains). Maps created by Soo Ryu, GIS data from: GEUS Dataverse (Jakobsen, 2022; Jakobsen, Tougaard and Anthonsen, 2022a; 2022b). (Bottom image) Vejle Fjord is currently in poor overall ecological status based on several quality measures (data from July 2021 (Miljøstyrelsen, 2021). The streams and rivers are based on data from June 2016 (Miljøstyrelsen, 2016). The fjord is in poor condition because there are agricultural fields surrounding the fjord (Hedrup, 2021). Maps created by Soo Ryu, GIS data from: Miljøstyrelsen (2016, 2021).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjord scale node). 

  • Figure 11. (Top Left image) Illustration of how coastal ecosystems such as seaweed depends on a certain depth below the sea (depending on water clarity) to access sunlight for photosynthesis and is sensitive to thermal stress (Dahl et al., 2003; Harley et al., 2012). Hence, many coastal ecosystems thrive at an ideal depth below sea level, which land reclamation projects have replaced (the shallow areas). Image credit: Dahl et al., (2003).  (Top Right image) Sugar Kelp (“sukkertang” in Danish) is brown macroalgae, which like many seaweed species, requires solid substrates like stones or rocks to attach itself to (Mouritsen, 2019). Therefore, they do usually not grow in sandy or muddy areas (unless they are seaweed species that float and thus are not dependent on rocks). Therefore, the removal of stones and rocks from the Danish coastline contributes to the lack of marine biodiversity. Image credit: The photo of the sugar kelp was taken from Aalbæk beach in January 2022. (Bottom image) A section drawing shows before and after the impact of the land reclamation process that replaces biologically productive shallow areas. The leftover areas are too deep for sunlight to reach, preventing the photosynthesis of marine vegetation such as seaweed. Image credit: Soo Ryu and Agnes Jarmund.  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Cyclic scale node). 

  • Figure 12. Various drivers in global kelp forest decline. The map was created by Soo Ryu, combining maps from various sources (Filbee-Dexter and Wernberg 2018; Froehlich et al. 2019; Gundersen et al. 2017; Steneck et al. 2002). Note: Unlike kelp, other seaweed types can grow on the equator.  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Global scale node). 

  • Figure 13. The overall ecological status of coastal waters in Denmark from June 2016 (top image) to July 2021 (bottom image) shows some signs of improvement (Miljøstyrelsen, 2016; 2021; 2022b). The maps show the overall ecological condition of coastal waters based on several quality measures with the nitrogen and phosphorous load on land. The poor condition is mainly due to excessive phosphorus and nitrogen load from agricultural farming. Recent efforts to clean up the coastal waters have shown some levels of improvement in water quality over the years. However, only a few coastal water bodies are in good ecological condition (as indicated in green). Jutland has a poorer water quality than Zealand due to a higher concentration of agricultural activity, as indicated by the maps. Maps created by Soo Ryu, GIS data from MiljøGIS (Miljøstyrelsen, 2016; 2021; 2022b). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – National scale node). 

  • Figure 14. Sugar kelp or Sukkertang (Laminaria saccharina) is grown on lines and buoys in Danish waters. There is scope to grow kelp forests in appropriate conditions to dissipate the strength of storm surges (Zhu et al., 2021). Several kilometres of dense kelp forests are required to provide significant coastal protection.  Local testing is required to understand various factors that influence the performance of the kelp. Furthermore, sugar kelp requires colder temperatures to thrive (less than the surface water temperature of 20 degrees), which is challenging as overall temperatures increase due to global warming (Boderskov, 2021).  Image credit: Teis Boderskov (Boderskov, 2020; Boderskov et al., 2021).  (Extracted from Kumu Temporal map – Long-term node). 

  • Figure 15. Rock reefs, in conjunction with marine life forms (e.g., seaweed and mussels), are used to protect the coast by breaking the waves and limiting the damage (i.e., erosion) to the land. While at the same time, it promotes marine life, such as providing a habitat for seaweed, mussels and fish. Image credit: Søren Winther Nørbæk (Aaberg, 2021).  (Extracted from Kumu Temporal map – Short-term node). 

  • Figure 16. According to the Australia Seaweed Institute (2020), “Seaweed can remove vast amounts of excess nitrogen and carbon dioxide as it grows… seaweed can then be harvested for use in products such as bio-fertilisers, animal feed and bioplastics, delivering both an environmental solution and an economic boost.” Image credit: Australian Seaweed Institute and CQ University Australia (2020). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Cyclic scale node). 

  • Figure 17. A cyclic diagram of the blue carbon potential of marine vegetation such as eelgrass and seaweeds via photosynthesis. Image credit: ENEOS Mirai Hub, (2020).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Cyclic scale node). 

  • Figure 18. Photos of the information displayed from the Kattegat Centre in Grenå, Denmark, on seaweeds. The image was taken by the author on 01/07/20. 

  • Figure 19. (Top left image) Showcasing the unknown aesthetic qualities of seaweed by artist/photographer Josie Iselin (Iselin, 2019).  (Top right image) The artist Julia Lohmann in Finland works with seaweed as part of her artworks. Image credit: Julia Lohmann (Lohmann, 2013; Todd Hart Design, 2014). (Middle row image) Victorian women dry pressing seaweed during the Victorian era. Image credit: The Natural History Museum, London (Oatman-Stanford, 2013). (Bottom image) Various dry pressed seaweeds (called macroalgae) from the coast of East Jutland (near Grenå), Denmark, by the author on July 2020 (from the workshop in Kattegat Centre, see Appendix 11: Notes and photos from workshops, meetings, events, field trips and festivals). Some of the seaweed species shown are (captured within A4 page): Red macroalgae – Blomkålstang (Irish moss), Søl (Dulse), Blodrøde ribbeblad (Sea beech), Rødkløft (Discoid fork weed). Brown macroalgae – Blæretang (Bladderwrack), Butblæret Sagassotang (Japanese wireweed). Green macroalgae – Søsalat and Rørhinde (Sea lettuce). There are over 350-400 different types of seaweed (three main categorisations of seaweed: red, green and brown) in Denmark (Lundsteen and Nielsen, 2019a, 2019b). 



  • Figure 20. (Top row of images) Marine Education Center in Malmö (Marint Kunskapcenter in Swedish). It was finished in 2017 to teach people about ocean literacy. Image credit: Nord Architects (Mairs, 2014; Nord Architects, 2022) (Bottom row of images - Left) A photo of the water tanks inside the Marine Education Centre taken by the author on a site visit on 23/11/19. (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Marine Education Centre in Malmo, Sweden node). 

  • Figure 21. (First and second row of images) Visualisations of the “Bølgemarken” (translated as “the wave field”) proposal by Havhøst in Copenhagen harbour (built). The floating platform is designed to bring up the mussels and seaweed growing under the water to be seen, touched and eaten by the citizens above. Although this is not a large-scale intervention, this project is a structural (architectural) response to making the invisible marine realm visible, educational and engaging to the public. Image credit: Joachim Hjerl (Havhøst, n.d.; n.d.; Hjerl, n.d.). (Bottom-row left image) Havhøst/Sea gardens/Marine utility garden associations are gaining traction across Denmark (map), with sea gardens popping up in different coastal regions, as indicated by the map. Image credit: Joachim Hjerl, Havhøst in June 2020.  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Havhøst node in Copenhagen, Denmark node). 

  • Figure 22. (Top row images) Photos from a site visit to Vejle Fjord. Blæretang (bladderwrack) is one of Denmark's most common forms of seaweed. They are easier to spot visibly due to the air pockets stored in their blades, allowing them to float on water. The photo was taken on 07/06/22 by Niels Rysz Olsen (Arkitektskolen Aarhus, 2022). (Bottom left image) A photo of inner Fjord’s murky waters around Fjordenhus, an urbanised area of Vejle’s waterfront. Seeing anything below the water is difficult, especially after the rain. Image credit: Cintia Organo Quintana (Quintana, Kristensen and Petersen, 2021). (Bottom right image) In Venice, during COVID-19 lockdowns, which halted all motorboat activity, the sediments were able to settle, allowing the Venetians to see clearly the living organisms in the water/lagoon (i.e. seaweed, fish, sea horses etc.) for the first time in a long time (McLaughlin, 2020). Image credit: Andrea Pattaro/AFP/Getty. 

  • Figure 23. Various types of seaweed live in different intertidal and subtidal zones requiring different depths below the water due to salinity and temperature levels. The seaweed species that can survive closer to shores, such as Bladderwrack (Blæretang in Danish) and Sea lettuce (Søsalat in Danish), can be seen by the human eye. In contrast, kelp species are in deeper waters (subtidal) that are invisible to the human eye. Emerged plants (i.e. found in salt marshes and wetlands) are more likely to be visible to the human eye than seaweed species that are mainly floating and submerged.  Image credit: Top image (Lalegerie et al., 2020). Middle image (Carey, 2010). Bottom image (Water on the web, 2022).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Seaweed scale node). 

  • Figure 24. (Left image) An image of algal bloom (mass of phytoplankton rapidly grown in the water body as a result of eutrophication) killing fish. Image credit: (US EPA, 2013). (Right images) Excessive nutrient load in the spring of 2022 have resulted in an explosion of fast-growing algae (brown, long-haired) growing on the meadows, eelgrass, rocks and on the fishing lines with clams and blue mussels in Vejle Fjord documented by the Sund Vejle Fjord project. They have been casually and colloquially referred to as “skidtalger” (translated to ‘scum algae’) or “lortalger” (shit algae) by the volunteers working with the restoration project, indicating a negative reputation (Bredsdorff, 2018b; Sund Vejle Fjord, 2022). Image Credit: Sund Vejle Fjord Facebook Page posted on the 23/05/22 (Sund Vejle Fjord, 2022).  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Sund Vejle Fjord node in Vejle, Denmark). 

  • Figure 25. Vejle Fjordhave (Vejle Fjord garden association). With seaweed and blue mussels growing on vertical lines floating on buoys on the water). Despite all the benefits of these sea gardens, these buoys are considered an “eyesore” for the locals who advocate a more pristine and untouched view of the fjord, making it difficult for a larger-scale application (Boderskov, 2021).  Image credit: (Top left) Sund Vejle Fjord Facebook page (Sund Vejle Fjord, 2022). (Rest of the images) Vejle Fjordhave (Vejle Fjordhave, 2022).  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Vejle Havhøst node). 

  • Figure 26. A potential example of Urban Seascaping. A project called: “Ulsteinvik – Multigenerational City” to transform the city of Ulsteinvik’s waterfront and park area by Edit landscape architects from Oslo, Norway. The project proposes to design coastal landscapes that are integrated into the city for better human and ecosystem health. Area of intervention 2.7km2. It was in collaboration with various consultants, including Elin T Sørensen, a marine landscape architect. Norwegian coastal bodies have more favourable conditions for kelp, as shown in the visualisations (with more tidal flow, salinity, temperature and cleaner waters).  Image credit: Edit Landscape Architects (Edit, 2022).  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Multigenerational City node in Ulsteinvik, Norway). 

  • Figure 27. Urban Seascaping as a neologism is a proposition and a concept to investigate the inter-relationship between humans and nonhumans, land and water in coastal cities. The use of “scaping” signifies the need to unify the current dualist reality by emphasising inter-relationality and interdependency. USS contributes to an emerging sub-field within landscape architecture and urban design/planning with references to blue and coastal urbanism. The potential role of a “seascape architect” (or a marine landscape architect) is redefined (in red) from the definition of a landscape architect in Merriam-Webster Dictionary (Merriam-Webster, n.d.). 

  • Figure 28. A diagram to illustrate a context-driven case study research. The context is in Vejle Denmark (East Jutland), looking specifically into Kanten/The Edge design competition and the Sund Vejle Fjord project that runs in parallel. The main methodological approach is Research-through-design via Kumu mappings (Maps 1, 2, and 3) informed by various methods such as interviews, site visits (fieldwork), literature reviews (also of state-of-the-art precedents), and stakeholder observations/engagements. The main theory driving the mapping for this research is “scaled system thinking” (systems-based approach), which is elaborated on in section 2.2.5. 

  • Figure 29. (Left image) The single case study context of Vejle has multiple embedded units of analysis (Yin, 2017). Mainly the design entries and interviews of winning participants form one set of data for analysis and involvement in the brief feedback and the judging process during Kanten/The Edge competition process. Image credit: Adapted from Yin (2017). 


  • Figure 30. Excerpts from the field studies of Master students from Aalborg University of Vejle’s waterfront (called Lystbadehavn) and Fjordbyen area. These learnings have contributed to the site analysis for Vejle.  (Left image) Master student’s mapping of all the key areas, businesses and buildings in Fjordbyen. Image credit: Sørensen et al. (2017). (Right image) Master student’s mapping of all the key functions and atmosphere of Fjordbyen area. Image credit: Sørensen et al. (2017).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjordbyen scale node). 

  • Figure 31. (First row of image) Location of areas in the accessible part of Vejle’s waterfront where I took photos of the most visible form of seaweed – blæretang/bladderwrack growing on the hard surfaces throughout various times of the year during site visits (regardless, it is difficult to capture the seaweed underwater via photographs). Background image credit: Vejle Municipality (n.d.) and Pine Cone Project (n.d.).  (Middle row of images) Excerpts from the two books called “Danmarks Havalger” by researchers Lundsteen and Nielsen (2019a, 2019b), where there are maps of all the different macroalgae types that grow in Vejle Fjord along with details for their main characteristics and conditions for growth. The information from this book is translated into the excel table in Appendix 13. (Bottom row image) Similar databases (not as extensive as Lundsteen and Nielsen) on different seaweed locations and basic facts in Denmark. Image credit: Screenshot of the Naturbasen website (Naturbasen, 2022). 

  • Figure 32. A sample of the extensive excel sheet was created for all the living red, brown and green macroalgae in the inner (and outer) Vejle Fjord. The table indicates the scientific name, the common name (both English and Danish), average size, typical water depth, colour, invasive or local specie, etc. (See Appendix 13) based on learnings from Lundsteen and Nielsen (2019a, 2019b), Naturbasen (n.d.) and MarLIN (n.d.). This information is re-appropriated into a map that is embedded back into the master Kumu map 1 – multiscalar analysis (see section 4.1.3, Figure 148). 

  • Figure 33. A flow chart describing the various moments of design research from Prominski (2019). Urban Seascaping evolves throughout the different moments in this research. In reality, this process is much messier, with mini-loops of these processes starting over again, with various empty moments interweaving in between. 104

  • Figure 34. Examples of conventional territorial mapping styles used by municipalities and practitioners. The top image is a proposal by Aarhus Havn/Port of Aarhus to propose a “Blue Line”, a landscape-seascape project at the edge of its newly land-reclaimed harbour extension project. It makes the mistake of only indicating the green landscaping on land, while anything below the sea is represented in a grey singular plane with no indication of marine vegetation due to the new rock reefs. Moreover, the maps convey the bathymetry as flat contour lines, and the delineation of the extent of the map’s borders is orthogonal and does not include its connection to the wider context (sea-side). Image credit: Aarhus Municipality and Aarhus Havn (Bak Lyck, 2022; Aarhus Havn, n.d.).   (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Aarhus Bugt node in Aarhus, Denmark). 

  • Figure 35. (Top row of image) Google Earth street view of the ocean bed of Lizard Island – Parts of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia have been mapped by Google with divers and hand-held cameras, showing numerous marine life. Currently, only a few ocean beds have been mapped by Google Earth. Image credit: Google Earth (screenshot captured on 03/05/22) (Google, 2022).  (Bottom row of images) Two screenshots from the 70hrs of videos captured by Sund Vejle Fjord Project show the dead sea bed due to water pollution in Vejle fjord. Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.). 

  • Figure 36. Marie Tharp and Bruce C. Hezeen’s hand-drawn (physiographic diagram) map of the North Atlantic Ocean floor helped support the tectonic plate theory and ultimately challenged the way we see the seafloor as a continuum. As shown in the left-hand image, the centre of the Atlantic Ocean shows the rift valley due to the tectonic plates. The right-hand image indicates that the Canary Islands (in yellow) is essentially a tip of a mountain that is above the waterline, indicating visually that the land and sea are interconnected. Image credit: Marie Tharp (1957) (reproduced). 

  • Figure 37. (Top image) Topographic and bathymetric data of Vejle fjord. The different colour gradation represents different heights above and below the current average sea level. This type of topobathy map is useful when engaging with a site that concerns the boundary between land and sea. GIS data from: GEUS Dataverse (Tougaard, 2006). (Bottom Left image) Map of Denmark showing the continuation of height-to-depth relationship from land to the sea via topobathy. The highest latitude is shown in black on land to the deepest sea beds in light beige. The red areas highlight the coastal cities and towns.  (Bottom Right image) Map of Denmark showing the elevation up to 10m on land (in dark beige), which shows the most low-lying areas of the Danish coast. The depth of the sea is a degradation from the colour beige to dark blue.  Both maps show the relationship between the low-lying areas near the coast (i.e. coastal cities/towns), marking their vulnerability to rising sea levels and storm surges. The map is a good example of visually portraying the coast as not a line but a transitioning zone.  Image credit for both maps: "Det Lille Blå Atlas" by Wiberg et al. (2022).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – National scale node). 

  • Figure 38. (Top image) “The veins of a nation: All of America’s rivers mapped” by Nelson Mina. Image credit: Nelson Mina (Gordon, 2013; Mina, n.d.).  (Bottom image) My attempt at mapping all of Denmark’s “on-land” water bodies (streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, etc.). Water bodies are shown in red like blood vessels of a human body. GIS source: Miljøstyrelsen (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – National scale node). 

  • Figure 39. One of the maps in the “Feral Atlas” project was led by Anna Tsing from the spatial humanities at Aarhus University and Stanford University in collaboration with artists and ecologists (Tsing et al., 2021). The nodes are embedded into various artistic backgrounds (highlighted in red and black dots) that host relevant content to each theme. Each node can contain tables, poetry, videos, maps, drawings etc. Image credit: Carr et al. (2021). 



  • Figure 40. Examples of iconic network diagrams/maps that reflect systems thinking visually – interrelations of parts and whole. (Left image) The Hebrew “Tree of life” (Kabbalah) diagram dates back to the 9th century BC. It consists of nodes (spheres) symbolising different archetypes and lines (paths) connecting the nodes. The diagram is believed to represent life – i.e. relationships between God and the human psyche (very broadly speaking). Image credit: AnonMoos (2014) from Wikimedia Commons.  (Right image) Charles Darwin’s “Tree of life” (1837) sketch could be argued as one of the most renowned forms of network mapping, understanding and representing interrelations in a visual format. The sketch of an evolutionary tree is from his notebook “Transmutation of Species”. Image credit: Darwin (1837) from Wikimedia Commons. 

  • Figure 41. Screenshot of the initial data dump of everything relevant about Vejle, seaweed, coastal protection/adaptation, nature-based solutions etc., that are relevant in answering the research questions. The data include screenshots, hyperlinks to URLs and documents, and comments and arrows indicating their interconnections to others (organised in Miro, an online software). 

  • Figure 42. An example of a complex Kumu map of all the stakeholders involved with the Aarhus School of Architecture. It is divided into several categories (i.e. Aarhus School of Architecture’s different research labs, teaching programs, personnel/staff, and collaborators such as universities, municipalities, practitioners, experts and NGOs). The map changes according to the variable you set, such as isolating only the University personnel and representing varying degrees of connections, as shown in the second and the third image above. It can also run analyses to find the nodes with the most connections and many other functions (which can be represented via node size, as shown in the last image). It can also be categorised and tagged into various groups to work through overwhelming and complex data sets. Image credit: Kevin Kuriakose. See this Kumu map: (instructions on how to use the map: 

  • Figure 43. There are three main Kumu maps. The main map is the multi-scalar map (i.e. contextual analysis centred around Vejle), the second map is the S-O-T-A map (i.e. mini-case studies), and the last map is a temporal map (i.e. projective and scenario-based strategies for Vejle). To access the online Kumu maps, visit (password: tang), as shown in Figure 3.  Understanding the workings of these Kumu maps will make more sense in Part IV of this research. 

  • Figure 44. (Top image) Map 1 - Multiscalar map with the seven different types of scale/networks of water bodies bound by the four Urban Seascaping propositions. Each of the seven major scales (i.e. main nodes) is associated with “mini-nodes” that each contains various information that is relevant in aiding the analysis of Kanten/The Edge competition winning entries. The connection between the nodes is differentiated as direct connections/correlations are solid lines (coloured), and indirect connections/correlations are dashed lines (black). Each coloured circular node is embedded with maps, drawings, films, text and hyperlinks, which are shown in the left-hand panel that appears when you click on a node (as shown in Figure 45).  (Bottom image) Zooming into The Edge and Fjord City scale/network as the starting node and its associated mini-nodes. 

  • Figure 45. Showing the progression of how to isolate and see the various levels of connections of each node in the Kumu map. (Top row image) Showing the main national scale/network node and its corresponding mini nodes. By clicking on the mini-nodes, the left-hand panel displays related information, such as maps and drawings. (Middle and Bottom row image) By clicking on the arrows on the right side, the user can isolate a node and its corresponding degrees of connection degrees or by hovering over the node with the mouse. 

  • Figure 46. Critical survey of the state-of-the-art projects worldwide and in Denmark. This map is a geographical aerial photo of the world with various nodes embedded with relevant information. These nodes contain different S-O-T-A projects and ontologies, categorised and marked with a corresponding USS proposition it adheres to.  For examples of the different S-O-T-A nodes, see Table 3 below. 

  • Figure 47. Map 3 is a temporal, projective mapping centred around the present time of this research, from the year 2019 to 2022, represented in a big yellow node for the city of Vejle. The map ranges from the initial conception of Vejle in 1256 to the present day (2020+-), mirroring this period all the way to 2756. Each century is marked on the vertical plane (i.e. 19th, 20th, 21st century and so on), while the timeline is presented on the horizontal plane. There are three major future scenarios: short, medium to long term, based on the IPCC and Vejle Municipality’s Storm surge Strategy report’s deadline (i.e. 2025, 2030, 2050, 2070). 

  • Figure 48. This timeline illustrates the long history of Danish coastal cities. For example, Aarhus was part of coastal market towns from the 1050s to the 1300s. Historic decisions on infrastructure and issues surrounding urban development still influence contemporary realities of coastal cities - even though the city has undergone a significant urban transformation. The timeline illustrates that the decisions made several hundred years ago impact the present; thus, there is a potential that present decisions could have consequences farther into the future than we predict (Wiberg et al., 2022). Image credit: Katrina Wiberg (Wiberg et al., 2022). 

  • Figure 49. Close-up view of the main structure of the temporal-projective map centred around the present period of 2020+- (in yellow), with the left-side nodes as past events (in green) and the right-side nodes (in red) as future scenarios, deadlines and projections. 


  • Figure 50. An example of a time node (2009-2018 – see red arrow) has been isolated to show only its connecting nodes by hovering the mouse over it (or by clicking on the focus button on the top right-hand corner in red). Therefore, this screenshot only shows all the connected time nodes to 2009-2018, such as the influence and connection to the nodes: “1842-1899”, “1970s”, and “1980s” in the past. A dashed line represents future connections, such as to 2050, 2070 and 2100, which indicates the impact of the current waterfront development on the future predicament of protecting Vejle from a future rise in sea level and frequent storm surges. These time nodes address urban development patterns in relation to that period’s legal, socio-cultural and economic factors.  Image credit: Nils Rosenvold (n.d., n.d.). 

  • Figure 51. Urban Seascaping is a critical proposition and concept rooted in thinking from inter-relational and transdisciplinary perspectives. It is an approach to investigating the various inter-dependent relationships between city-sea (site/context/spaces), human-nonhuman (actors/stakeholders) and spatial-network maps (visual tools/ medium) in coastal cities. Urban Seascaping has a unique position of focusing on seaweed as the representative lens of the marine realm in the Anthropocene. 

  • Figure 52. One month into my research, a 120-year-old, 23m tall lighthouse called “Rubjerg Knude” in Northern Denmark was relocated 80m inland at the cost of 5 million kroner (€670,000 approx.) due to coastal erosion in October 2019. When it was first lit in 1900, it was approximately 200m from the shore, but it shrank to only six meters 120 hundred years later. However, experts estimate that the lighthouse, with its new location further inland, will only be close to the edge again in approximately 40 years. This lighthouse became a visual symbol of sea-level rise and shoreline retreat in the 21st century (Associated Press in Copenhagen, 2019; Miljøministeriet Naturstyrelsen, 2022). Image credit: Hans Ravn (Ritzau, 2019). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Rubjerg Knude node in North Jutland, Denmark). 

  • Figure 53. (Top image) Impermeability of the risk area Fjordbyen at the bottom of the river valley of Vejle. Image credit: Extracted from SKALGO (n.d.). (Bottom image) The areas in red and purple are associated high valued buildings in Fjordbyen that would incur high costs for damages due to SLR and SS. The left image is the cost incurred from 2021, and the right image is the economic cost associated with future damages based on predictions for 2100. Image credit: Vejle Klimakort( n.d.).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjordbyen scale node). 

  • Figure 54. (Top) The graph above shows the absolute mean water level around Denmark in metres for the years 1900-2100. The grey-shaded curve for the years 1900-2012 shows the observed annual mean water level measured by Danish water gauges, adjusted for isostatic uplift. The thin blue curve for the years 2012-2100 shows the IPCC’s best estimate of the mean water level in the North Sea for the RCP4.5 scenario, and the light purple shadow indicates the uncertainty of this scenario. The dotted line shows the Danish Meteorological Institute’s (DMI) estimate of an upper limit for water level rises for use in uncertainty calculations. To the right of the figure are shown the mean value and uncertainties for the period 2081-2100 for the four IPCC RCP scenarios as well as for the University of Copenhagen’s BACC assessment of the A1B scenario in grey (Olesen et al., 2014; DMI, 2018). Image credit: Olesen et al. (2014). (Bottom) Map of Little Belt (Lillebælt) Denmark shows the change between 1981-2010 and the future period 2071-2100 in mean water level (cm) for the high emissions scenario RCP8.5. Change in mean water level: 54cm and uncertainty range: 10-99cm (Pedersen et al., 2020; DMI, 2022a). Image credit: Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI, 2022). 

  • Figure 55. (Top image) An increasing number of wilder storms in Denmark (Class 4 in red – classified based on wind speed and strength) within 130 years from the end of the 19th century. The recorded storms and hurricanes average 15 per decade, ranging in various storm surge heights (DMI, 2022c). (Middle row image) An example of the growing storm surge risk is the coastal city of Vejle, where the range of storm surge could reach almost up to 3m by the end of the century. Image credit: Kystdirektoratet (2020). (Bottom row images) Two maps of the city of Vejle with the impact of 10-year storm surge events for 2021 and 2100. By 2100 the bottom of the river valley where the city is located will be completely underwater compared to 2021, in which the water barely impacts the city. Image credit: Vejle Klimakort( n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Vejle Fjord node). 

  • Figure 56. A diagram showing the relationship between SLR and SS in its impact on inundating coastal cities in Denmark with Storm surge range for Little Belt Sea (Lillebælt where Vejle is). SLR alone will not cause inundation of coastal cities (even in a worst-case scenario), but SLR coupled with frequent and more intense SS has the potential to wreak havoc in a worst-case scenario situation. Image credit: Soo Ryu and Agnes Jarmund. 

  • Figure 57. The current elevation (1-2m) above the normal water level in the form of fortified concrete bulkheads represents the hard edge conditions of many coastal cities in Denmark, such as Aalborg, Aarhus, Middelfart and Vejle.  Furthermore, these typical urban coastal edge conditions are defined and segregated, the hard boundary between city and water that severs a closer and more tactile connection with the water and its life forms. The public space on the waterfront is mainly made of concrete surfaces fit for humans. Little consideration is given to terrestrial plants, and there is almost no designated space for interacting with the marine world. Image credit: The photos of the hard-concrete edge conditions of waterfront spaces were taken by the author in Aalborg (Top left), Aarhus (Top right), Middelfart (Bottom left) and Vejle (Bottom right) in Denmark during 2020-2022. 

  • Figure 58. Conceptual diagram of the way in which artificial structures modify ecological connectivity vital for coastal ecosystems (Bishop et al., 2017). In heavily built urban environments, these ecological connections have long been destroyed as the development of buildings and infrastructures in the harbourfront areas are prioritised over preserving coastal ecosystems (Pilkey and Young, 2011; Bishop et al., 2017). Image credit: Bishop et al. (2017).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Cyclic scale node). 

  • Figure 59. (Left image) Coastal nature is able to migrate landward as sea level rise, preventing coastal squeeze.  (Right image) Diagram showing an urban scenario where a rise in sea level drowns the existing salt marsh in front of cities due to the creation of a dike to protect the city from flooding.  Image credit for both images: COWI and Arkitema, 2021 (Ebbensgaard et al., 2022b). 


  • Figure 60. (Top image) An aerial photo of current waterfront residential development models in the coastal city of Aarhus in Denmark. The residential and commercial development on Aarhus Docklands (Aarhus Ø) started in 2007 on a former container terminal that was reclaimed land. The area spans 100,000m2 with plans to house over 10,000 residents. The Docklands are elevated 2.5m above the previous normal water level based on a future increase in sea level of 0.5m, with stone reefs as coastal protection to dampen the waves. However, the Docklands is considered a storm surge risk area, and it has been described as unable to deal with future predictions of SLR and storm surges by the end of the century (Aarhus Kommune, n.d.; Klimatilpasning, 2015).  Image credit: Jesper Larsen and (Bottom images) Land reclamation process of the tallest apartment complex in Aarhus, Denmark, called “The lighthouse.” It is 142m high, with over 400 units on reclaimed land, which requires a resource-intensive construction process, as shown (Lighthouse, 2021). Image credit: (Left image) Taken by the author on April 2020. (Right image) Nybolig (n.d.). 

  • Figure 61. (Left image) A series of land reclamations, the first of which took place in 1646 (outlined in red). Around the time of the American Revolution in 1774, NYC began selling “water lots”, allowing entrepreneurs to use landfill to create additional usable land. By the 2050s, 800,000 people could be living in a flood zone in NYC that would cover a quarter of the city's land’ (Farberov, 2013). Image credit: Farberov (2013). (Right) An overlay of a map from Microsol Resources (2015) shows the area impacted by a 13-14 foot (approx. 4-4.3m) storm surge by Hurricane Sandy in 2012 (Farberov, 2013). The images are superimposed by the author. 

  • Figure 62. (Top row of images) The Golden Age paintings of the romanticised vision of the Danish pastoral landscape by painters Johan Thomas Lundbye (Painting title: Landscape at Arresø, view of the sand dunes at Tisvilde) and Christen Købke (Painting title: Lot near the calcium distillery with a view towards Copenhagen). Image credit: Lundbye (1838) and Købke (1836). (Bottom-row of images) Golden Age paintings depicted coastal nature, such as beach meadows and salt marshes near the coast, that were also used for grazing. Image credit: Paintings title: “Beach area at Vejle Fjord” by Hans Christian Fischer (1884) and “Summer day in Roskilde Fjord” by L.A Ring, (1900). 

  • Figure 63. (Left column of images) A photo of typical Danish coastal nature consisting of salt marshes and salt meadows for grazing. Image credit: Carsten Horup (Ebbensgaard et al., 2022b) and COWI (2022). (Right column of images) A diagram showing how a former wetland can be diked to be converted into farmland. Image credit: COWI-Arkitema, 2021 (Ebbensgaard et al., 2022b). The image has been slightly altered by the author to illustrate the before and after land reclamation for agriculture. 

  • Figure 64. A Danish newspaper article discusses the need for proactive marine restoration to address the dire conditions. Danish coastal waters are in due to heavy agricultural activity resulting in eutrophication. These conditions are invisible to the human eye from above (Bredsdorff, 2018a; 2018b; Touveneau, 2018). Image credit: SDU (Touveneau, 2018). 

  • Figure 65. (Top image) The process of land reclamation is by pumping the water out while filling the new land. The image is the draining of the new Frederikshavn harbour in Denmark for expansion. Image credit: Rohde Nielsen (n.d.).  (Second-row image) Aerial view of the land reclaimed Aarhus Port/Harbour contains various industrial and commercial activities along with the ferry terminal that connects Aarhus to other parts of Denmark and for tourists (cruise ships and ferries). The majority of this huge area is inaccessible to the public. Image credit: Carl Elgaard Shipping (n.d.). (Third-row image) Looking from the waterfront area of the city to the port area. The harbour has a visual presence in many Danish coastal cities, where they are located close to the city and is part of the coastal city’s identity and function. Image source: Google Maps street view taken on 15/01/22. (Bottom image) Mærsk is a Danish shipping country famous for its scale of operation. It is in the harbourfront area of Aarhus, while the waterfront recreational activity is in the foreground. Image taken by Nicolai Skiveren (Skiveren and Andersen, 2022). 

  • Figure 66. (Top left image) Aarhus harbour today (all on land reclaimed area). Image credit: Aarhus Municipality (Bak Lyck, 2022). (Top right image) The proposal for the port expansion, new piers with container ports and the new ferry terminal. It is expected to be fully completed by 2050. The land reclamation process will involve filling the sea with surplus soil from the land, such as construction sites and raw materials extracted from the Kattegat (Aarhus Havn, n.d.). Image credit: Aarhus Municipality (Bak Lyck, 2022). (Middle row) – Image of the proposal of the Aarhus industrial port expansion for 2050 (in orange). Image credit: Aarhus Municipality.  (Bottom) – Before and after rendering of the view of the sea from Marselisborg beach. Image credit: Aarhus Municipality (Bak Lyck, 2022). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Aarhus Bay node). 

  • Figure 67. (Left) Photo of Aarhus Bay, a popular recreational area by the citizens of Aarhus. Image credit: Axel Schütt (Johannsen, 2022). (Right) Evidence of seaweed growing on the stone reefs in Aarhus Bay. Image credit: Mette Møller Nielsen, DTU Aqua (Helmig, Møller Nielsen and Kjerulf Petersen, 2020). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Aarhus Bay node). 

  • Figure 68. (First image) Initial design proposals for ‘The Blue Line’ on the southern end of the port expansion. Image credit: Aarhus Havn, COWI and Aarhus Municipality (COWI and Aarhus Municipality, 2022; Aarhus Havn, n.d., pp.22 and 26). (Second, third, fourth and last row of images) An initial urban landscape design proposal by C.F Møller Architects. Much of the design visualisations are focussed on land-based landscaping designed primarily for humans. While there are a few areas that open up for more direct access to the sea, it is not clear in the visualisations. Image credit: C.F. Møller Architects (2019). 

  • Figure 69. (First and second row of images) The Blue Line signifies a small departure from the previous B-A-U of land-reclaimed harbour constructions, where the traditional edge conditions did not consider any form of landscaping or seascaping (nor accessibility or recreation). Image credit: C.F. Møller Architects (2019). (Bottom image) Aarhus Bugten is a response to the current trend of “greening” the dikes with landscaping and combining more social functions, such as space for recreation for everyday use (i.e. “non-disaster moments”) (Gendall et al., 2015). Image credit: Rebuild by Design by Gendall et al. (2015).


  • Figure 70. (Top image) A photo of the reclaimed land recreational area of the waterfront of Aarhus. It is largely made up of the impermeable surface of asphalt and concrete (heat island effect in summer); it makes very little consideration for the engagement of coastal ecosystems nor any buffer space for excess water. Image credit: Kultur Aarhus and Dennis Borup Jakobsen.  (Middle row of images) All the high-rise waterfront residential complexes in Aarhus Docklands (Aarhus Ø), Denmark. Stone reefs envelop the reclaimed area to mitigate the strength of waves from storms and provide marine life habitat. Image credit: (Left) Nybolig (n.d.) and (Right) taken by the author on September 2021. (Bottom row of images) The recent urban development of the waterfront in Aarhus Docklands/Aarhus Ø is coupled with the marina and various other amenities such as restaurants, bars, harbour baths and access to other water sports activities. Havnebad (Harbour Bath) is designed by Bjarke Ingels Group. Image credit: Google maps and Organo Wood (2018). 

  • Figure 71. (Translated by the author from Danish) Marketing narratives for a high-rise apartment complex in the Aarhus Docklands called “The Lighthouse” in Denmark. This development is another form of anthropocentric waterfront area from reclaimed land with hard edges. The landscaped greenery is often an add-on for marketing visualisations and is designed to serve aesthetic and recreational pleasure for the residents. The project is very “seaview centric” as one of the key marketing features and claims that this project is the meeting place between the city and the sea. Image credit: 3XN Architects (Lighthouse n.d.).

  • Figure 72. A highly publicised waterfront apartment in Vejle called “The Wave (Bølgen),” where the view out to the water (Vejle Fjord) is commodified for high-income buyers. Ironically, while this apartment complex's main selling point is the access to the fjord as a view, it blocks the view of the fjord for the rest of the city behind the complex. Image credit: (Top image) Mikkel Berg Pedersen / Ritzau Scanpix (Ryrsø, 2022). (Bottom row of images) Mette Frandsen (Skøtt Gadeberg, 2015).

  • Figure 73. (Top left image) A map of two main construction phases of Lynetteholmen. The size of the project is outlined in blue. It is an extension from Refshaleøen to Nordhavn. Lynetteholmen will block Copenhagen city’s visual access to the water (Øresund) and become more of an enclosed area. Image credit: By og Havn (Nørgaard, 2021). (Top right image) A visualisation of what Lynetteholmen would look like by the year 2035 (part of the initial phase of filling the sea). The future use of this newly reclaimed land is still shrouded in uncertainties. Image credit: Arkitema, COWI and Tredje Natur (Nørgaard, 2021). (Second-row image) The edge of the Lynetteholmen that fans out to Øresund is allocated for storm surge protection that doubles as a recreational area with new landscaping to increase biodiversity. Image credit: By og Havn (Ida, 2020). (Third row) Visualisations of some of the nature-based edge conditions consisting of stone reefs to mitigate the strength of storm surges and new buildings that could occupy the new district of Copenhagen to mitigate the increasing urbanisation. Image credit: Tredje Natur (Tredje Natur, n.d.) and Lynetteholmen (Lynetteholmen, 2022). 

  • Figure 74. The impact of clapping/dredging on habitat-forming marine species like seaweed. Therefore, clapping could hinder any efforts to integrate marine nature as part of nature-based solutions (i.e. urban seascaping) near the impacted area. Image credit: Signe Heiredal and explanatory text by Jonas Deiborg (translated from Danish to English) (Deiborg, Ejbye-Ernst and Frandsen, 2022). 

  • Figure 75. Lynetteholmen will also host a green-blue coastal landscape of 78 ha with nature-based solutions as part of coastal protection from storm surges and a green-blue recreational nature area for the residents (Tredje Natur, n.d.). Image credit: Tredje Natur. 

  • Figure 76. This is representative imagery of terrestrial thinking by Heatherwick Studio in New York City’s Hudson River that transfers land-based green public space on top of the water. A terrestrial green park with trees, grass and flowers is placed directly on the water rather than incorporating more water-based vegetation (i.e. a form of “blue” park). Image credit: Heatherwick Studio (2021).

  • Figure 77. Screenshots/excerpts from the Deutsche Welle (DW) documentary called “Climate change – Living on water” (screened on 08 July 2020 on YouTube). The design proposals are from a Dutch Architecture company called “Water Studio” in Rijswijk, The Netherlands. Image credit: Climate change – living on the water, DW Documentary (2020) and Water Studio (n.d., n.d.).

  • Figure 78. Terrestrial bias in land-based infrastructural projects that prioritise grey infrastructure. In comparison, Sund Vejle Fjord (Healthy Vejle Fjord) project is funded by the Velux fund (15 million DKK), with Vejle Municipality providing another 10 million DKK from 2020-2024 (Vejle Ådal & Fjord, 2022). It is uncertain whether the project will continue beyond this period. The project's longevity is paramount and cannot continue without continual investment in the future. Image credit: Holsøe arkitekter (n.d.), BEAM projects (n.d.) and Sund Vejle Fjord.

  • Figure 79. Map of Vejle Fjord and the various nature protection areas surrounding it. They are mainly on land protecting existing forests and meadows as opposed to placing protection areas to help Vejle fjord in reviving the fish, mussels and eelgrass population under the water. GIS data credit: MiljøGIS, Miljøstyrelsen (2016). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjord scale node).


  • Figure 80. The waterfront areas of Middelfart, Denmark, show the dualistic spatial division of “nature” and “culture.”  (Left) Despite having the sea next to the waterfront, there is no tactile way to engage with the water (this is also due to the stronger currents). Instead, a small artificial replacement pool is built only for small children's recreation. There are no “rockpools” that host marine life. (Right) The waterfront areas have very few areas for landscaping, but, in this case, it is terrestrial and not marine. The waterfront is dominated by impermeable paving. The photos were taken by the author on August 2022.

  • Figure 81. Looking into a more community and ecology-driven approach, departing from the current economy and defence-driven approach (Al and Westerhof, 2018). Image credit: Arcadis.

  • Figure 82. (Top image) An example of more than four decades of terrestrial greening of cities via protecting urban planning in favour of trees is in Utrecht, Holland (Bom, 2022). Image credit: (Bom, 2022). (Bottom image) An example of undoing the asphalt developments. The canal in Utrecht was restored after 50 years (Williams, 2022). Image credit: Bicycle Dutch.  The last column (Now-2100+) indicates the scope for more blue infrastructures, such as nature-based retention ponds and water-based vegetation landscaping-seascaping, as water gains more prominence in cities due to flooding or SLR/SS by the end of this century. The Top Right image is a project called “Enghaveplads” (Climate Park in English) in Copenhagen, Denmark, by Tredje Natur, and the Bottom Right image is a project called Weiliu Wetland Park by Yifang Ecoscape in Wei River’s floodplain outside of Xianyang City, China. Image credits: Tredje Natur (n.d.) and Yifang Ecoscape (Landezine, 2019). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Enghaveplads, Copenhagen and Weilu Wetland Park, China node).

  • Figure 83. Based on Kristina Hill’s BCDC’s Bay Policies workshop (in the USA), exploring alternatives for coastal adaptation. Findings indicated a large unexplored solution space for more dynamic landforms (Hill, 2015). Image credit: Katrina Hill (2015).

  • Figure 84. Project by Rafi Segal A+U and DLand Studios (Susannah Drake) – “Bight: Coastal Urbanism” in the Tri-State, USA. This project aims to replace the hard edge that segregates the city and sea with a new “landscape economic zone — a buffer that allows land and water to commingle, creating new spaces for habitation, conservation, work, and play. This project is an example of long-term retreat as part of the coastal adaptation strategy” (DLand Studio, n.d.).  (Top row) The three main principles and three main typologies of Coastal Urbanism.  Image credit: (Second row) - Vision for a new landscape/seascape of the future – a buffer zone between land and sea (that is not based on land reclamation but allowing water to infiltrate).  (Third row) – Before and after mappings of the area where certain risk areas are allowed to be inundated due to SLR and certain critical areas protected.  (Bottom) – Different building and landscape/seascape typologies for areas that will be frequently inundated or permanently inundated due to future SLR. (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map –Bight Coastal Urbanism, NYC node).

  • Figure 85.  Visualisation by SCAPE Studio of a project called “Oyster-tecture”, developed for the Museum of Modern Art exhibit “Rising Currents” (2009) by SCAPE in collaboration with Bart Chezar, Hydroqual Engineering, MTWTF, the New York Harbour School, NY/NJ Baykeeper, Paul Mankiewicz and Phil Simmons (Bergdoll et al., 2011). The project is a proposal for reviving the former oyster beds in New York, USA, as part of its coastal adaptation strategy. In combination with mussels and eelgrass, oyster reefs are used to build reefs for wave attenuation and harbour water filtration (Orff, 2016).  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Osytertecture, NYC node).

  • Figure 86. (Top image) An example of a hybrid approach with growing interest and evidence supports the combination of natural infrastructure, built infrastructure and retreat strategy to enhance coastal resilience. Image credit: Redrawn and redesigned diagram by Soo Ryu and Agnes Varmund (based on Sutton-Grier et al. (2015)). (Middle row of images) ECOncrete – Marine life-friendly coastal armour to enhance shoreline stabilisation that provides both structural and biological value. After a few weeks of installation (in the port of Rotterdam in 2018), it was able to host diverse species of brown and green seaweed (macroalgae) and invertebrates due to material composition friendly to marine life and its design of imitating a small tidal pool. Image credit:  ECOncrete (n.d., n.d.). (Bottom row of images) Kelp (sugar kelp/sukkertang) hanging on cultivation lines below the surface of the sea. There are several structural methods of growing kelp on lines. Image reference: Tim Dencker (n.d.).

  • Figure 87. A hybrid approach where barrier islands out in the deeper waters are created to host dynamic ecologies to protect from storm surges in combination with levee protection inland. “Blue Dunes” by WXY Architecture + Urban Design and West 8 for NYC, USA (Keenan and Weisz, 2020). Image credit: Rebuild by Design (n.d.), WXY Architecture + Urban Design and West 8. (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Blue Dunes, NYC node).

  • Figure 88. A hybrid approach proposal by DLand Studios and ARO is called “A New Urban Ground.” The proposals refurbish existing hard infrastructure systems, including perimeter wetlands, a raised edge, and absorptive sponge slips paired with new upland street infrastructure systems, protecting the island from flooding in the event of a large storm (DLand Studio and Sasaki, 2022). Image credit: Dland Studio.   (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – A New Urban Ground, NYC node).

  • Figure 89. A form of a blue commons called “Oriental Bay Enhancement” by Architecture Workshop in Wellington Harbour in New Zealand. People use this urban-designed public space for contemplation and interaction with the sea. Image credit: The top photos were taken by the author in December 2019.  (Bottom left image) Photographer unidentified. (Bottom right image) Architecture Workshop (n.d.)  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Oriental Bay Enhancement in Wellington, New Zealand node).


  • Figure 90. A temporary artistic installation called “On water” in a river in Münster, Germany, by Ayşe Erkmen. It is important to note that the installation is weather-dependent (i.e. summer) and is installed in water bodies with minimal currents and depth.   Image Credit: (Left image) Roman Mensing (Mensing, 2017). (Right image) Gregory Volk (Volk, 2017). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – “On water” in Münster, Germany node).

  • Figure 91. Various educational, recreational and artistic initiatives on and in the water could contribute towards forming a blue urban commons to engage the citizens on the issues of sea level rise and climate change. (First row of images) Photos of large-scale floating art installations with various themes and messages from the Floating Art Festival are accessible by kayaks/canoes. A notable art installation of Le Corbusier’s infamous Villa Savoye has been partially submerged as a warning about the sea-level rise by artist Asmund Havsteen-Mikkelsen, called “Flooded modernity,” 2018 (Vejle Municipality, 2020a).Image credit: (Left) Artist Swen Kählert (Kählert, 2022) and (Right) Artist Asmund Havsteen-Mikkelsen (Emmery, 2018). (Second row of images) An informative, educational installation on the impact of sea level rise and storm surge in Vejle at the harbourfront area of Fjordbyen in Vejle by Vejle Municipality (Johansen, 2020). Photos were taken by HS-Skilte (n.d.) on July 2020. (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Floating Art Festival, Vejle, Denmark node).

  • Figure 92. Image of all the different representative animal species that live in different cities worldwide (illustration from a French children’s book called “Les animaux des villes” – The animals of the cities). For coastal cities, multispecies coexistence could include marine species, such as crabs and oysters (i.e. New York City, as shown in  Figure 85) and even seaweed. Image credit: Nadia Budde (2014).

  • Figure 93. Artificial structures and better consideration of other species can minimise negative environmental impact and aid habitat creation for different types of marine life. Image credit: Bishop et al. (2017).

  • Figure 94. (Top Left): “Pink Elements” (no.6/Zig Zag Column) is part of the research project called "Deep Sea Minding" by SUPERFLEX. The pink sculpture is built with coral-friendly bricks for fish. Installed at Galería OMR, Mexico City, 2019. Photo credit: Enrique Macías Martínez (Superflex 2019).  (Top Middle): A diver installs the pink element to test if the fish would inhabit and interact with the sculpture (Superflex n.d.). Image credit: SUPERFLEX. (Bottom left) An underwater sculpture in Copenhagen's Harbour. Entitled “As Close As We Get,” the work is simultaneously an experiment, a home for marine organisms, and an artwork part of a super reef (SuperRev) (Tækker, 2022). Image credit: SUPERFLEX. (Bottom Right): “Interspecies Assembly” - A drawing of the first gathering of humans and other marine species on earth, a way to promote interspecies dialogue and cooperation (Superflex n.d.). Image credit: SUPERFLEX.  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Coast of Copenhagen node). 

  • Figure 95. (Top row) Before and After photo of Gyldensteen beach (aerial photo credit: Viggo Lind).  (Second row) Map of the transformation of Gyldensteen beach over the past 230 years from a coastal marine area to farmland to a marine nature reserve for research, recreation and a buffer zone to protect the town of Bogense behind. Image credit: Cintia Organo Quintana.  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Gyldensteen Strand, Fyn, Denmark node).

  • Figure 96. (Left image) The return of seaweed species in the Western and Eastern parts of Gyldensteen Coastal Lagoon six years after flooding in 2014. Kristensen et al. (unpublished data).  (Right image) The photo shows the growth of brown macroalgae growing in the Gyldensteen lagoon. Image credit: Cintia Organo Quintana took the photo in September 2021. (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Gyldensteen Strand, Fyn, Denmark node).

  • Figure 97. (Top Left to Right) A photo of the education centre for visitors showcasing information on the various land and marine-based species in the Gyldensteen nature reserve (called Naturrum) (Aage V. Jensen Naturfond. n.d.). A photo of seaweed in glass tanks for education purposes. Image credit: Cintia Organo Quintana took the photo in June 2019. (Bottom Left to Right) A photo of birds occupying the Gyldensteen lagoon, a nature restoration area (VisitNordfyn n.d.). A photo of people visiting the area as a bird sanctuary. Image credit: May Holm Gramstrup-Nielsen (VisitNordfyn n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Gyldensteen Strand, Fyn, Denmark node).

  • Figure 98. (Top left image) The variety of recreational activities, such as snorkelling and the possibility of hiring transparent kayaks, allows the visitors to see the marine life. Image credit: NZ Pocket Guide (Clear Kayaking at Goat Island in Auckland – New Zealand’s Biggest Gap Year, 2018). (Top right image) Image credit: Darryl Torckler. (Middle-row left image) Map of the Goat Island Reserve and the Marine Education Centre and Marine Laboratory in New Zealand (otherwise known as Cape Rodney – Okakari Point) Marine Reserve. Image credit: Department of Conservation (n.d.). (Bottom right image) Public signage communicating the various benefits of a marine reserve. The photo was taken by the author on May 2021.  (Bottom left image) Inside the Goat Island Marine Discovery Centre. Image credit: Laura S (2018) (Bottom right image) There is a coast walkway around the Goat Island marine reserve, connecting the land to sea as a recreational experience for visitors. Image credit: Department of Conservation (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Goat Island, New Zealand node).

  • Figure 99. Examples of archipelagos that erode away the notion that the world consists of islands, nation-states and continents but a world as archipelagos (Pugh, 2013). For instance, Denmark and Canada are archipelagos composed of hundreds, if not thousands, of “island-to-island” assemblages. Canada has the largest number of islands in the world (i.e. 52,455) and should be understood “not as a unitary land mass but as a series of multiple assemblages of coastal, oceanic and insular identities” (Stratford et al., 2011, p. 121). Denmark is another example where it can be conceived of as an archipelago, not just within its own 400 islands but its inter-relation to the world of archipelagos. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons and Timvasquez (2006), (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Archipelagic Thinking, The Caribbean islands node).


  • Figure 100. Vision 2020 New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan. The map of the five land-based boroughs (i.e. The Bronx, Manhatten, Queens, Brooklyn, Staten Island) and the proposal to make the coastal water body the sixth borough. Image credit: Skye Duncan (NYC Planning, 2011) and reappropriated image from Azoulay (2022).  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – The sixth borough, in New York City, USA node).

  • Figure 101. A flow chart describing the various moments of design research from Prominski (2019) (refer to section 2.2 for more information). Urban Seascaping evolves throughout the different moments in this research. In Part III of the monograph, Urban Seascaping is part of the Original and Reflective moments, mainly as a research proposition.

  • Figure 102. The four main Urban Seascaping propositions.

  • Figure 103. A flow chart describing the various moments of design research from Prominski (2019) (refer to section 2.2 for more information). Urban Seascaping evolves throughout the different moments in this research. In Part IV of the monograph, USS is part of the “Reflective and Projective” moments, mainly as a conceptual framework and as a mapping tool (via Kumu).

  • Figure 104. The master map is arranged in a multiscalar format in Kumu, developed and hosted online, which is interactive for the users (go to for access) (Kumu, 2020). The numerous circular nodes are embedded with various types of analysis, which appear by clicking on them (a side window opens displaying images, videos, texts, animated GIFs and maps). The main scalar nodes are compiled in the centre linearly, ranging from the global scale to the seaweed scale from the water perspective. These seven major scales/networks are mapped and connected to mini nodes, representing sub-sections of each major scale. The nodes are connected with lines to indicate the network of interrelationships. A dashed line represents a more indirect relationship between nodes, while a solid line represents a more direct causal relationship between nodes. The multi-scalar nodes are enveloped by Urban Seascaping's four main propositions (main outer ring) that drive the overall direction and content of the mapping process.

  • Figure 105. Screenshot of the Kumu map (Kumu, 2020). The Edge network/scale encompasses the analysis of the competition brief, the judging process, winning entries and other entries alongside the Vejle Municipality’s Storm surge strategy that was ratified in December 2020 (Vejle Municipality, 2020c). By clicking on the node “The Edge Networks (Vejle Kanten)”, one can access the information on the competition.

  • Figure 106. (Top Left) The green lines indicate the security line to envelop Fjordbyen, with the two main zones as the representative site (the dark green line represents the current hard edge condition and the light green line a soft edge). Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020a). (Top Right) Vejle Municipality’s idea of the edge as a zone. The edge should be considered as a zone extending off the concrete coastline. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020a). (Middle) The way the water flows in Vejle is determined by its topography of the river valley, with the three streams/rivers meeting at the heart of the city centre of Vejle, while the water from the sea comes from the inner fjord. Image credit: SCALGO and Vejle Municipality (2020a). (Bottom) An aerial photo of Fjordbyen and Vejle’s city centre with the Fjord and the bridge. Image credit: Vejle Municipality Facebook page. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjordbyen scale node).

  • Figure 107. Images of the Kanten/The Edge zones: Urban and Nature Zone.  (Top images) The urban zone is a typical concrete bulkhead 1m-2m below the current water level. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020a) and photo of the hard concrete edge taken by the author on 17/09/21. (Bottom images) The nature zone consists of reed beds and a small stone reef with grass alongside the road and bicycle path. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020a, n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 108. “Kote” (elevation) level 0 corresponds approximately to the current normal water level in the fjord (tidal variation of approximately 50cm). The Edge/Kanten protection levels are 2.5m for protection and 3.0m for adaptation (Vejle Municipality, 2020a). Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020a, n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 109. The most popular approach to meeting the 2.5m and 3m protection requirements.  Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020), SUPERFLEX and Baldios.  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).


  • Figure 110. (Top image) A 20-year and 50-year storm surge event by 2050 (NetGIS, 2022) from Vejle Municipality. The area shaded in green is flooded due to water from the fjord, and the area shaded in yellow is flooded due to the river bleeding in the event of a storm surge. The extent of the water from the fjord does not go beyond the railway tracks on top of an existing dike, as shown in the photos. The water from the fjord can bleed through the tunnels further into the city centre. Images source: Net GIS (2022). (Bottom row of images) Google street view of the elevated railway tracks that doubles as a dike. The water can only infiltrate through the tunnel bridge openings. Image source: Jernbanegade in Google Maps. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjordbyen scale node).

  • Figure 111. Photo evidence of positive signs of marine life returning to the fjord due to the restoration efforts of eelgrass and mussels from the Sund Vejle Fjord marine restoration project. They are also fishing out the exploding crab population and establishing rock reefs back into the fjord in several locations (refer to Figure 10) where small fish can use as nurseries. The mussel beds and eelgrass plantations have settled in different parts of the mid-outer Vejle fjord. Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Sund Vejle Fjord, Denmark node).

  • Figure 112. (Top row) A concrete pedestrian platform borders the Vejle marina. At the end of the walkway, a concrete staircase leads into the water, where several different species of seaweed (and blue mussels) can be found due to the shallow water. Only a shallow water depth of around 10-30cm allows the seaweed to be seen by the human eye due to the fjord's poor water clarity. The photos were taken by the author on a site visit: on 07/06/22. (Second row) Photos of green and red macroalgae growing on the submerged staircase. The underwater photo was taken with GoPro Camera by Niels Rysz Olsen on 07/06/22 (Rysz, 2022). (Third row): Blæretang (Bladderwrack – brown macroalgae) was found attached to most of the concrete edges around the waterfront area. Crabs were also seen underwater. Seaweed is grown on lines in the Kayak Club in the waterfront area. The photos were taken by the author on a site visit on 29/07/20. (Bottom left) Mapping the sea bed conditions and habitat types in the study area of mid-fjord. The figure is reproduced from Niras 2016. (Bottom right) The average number of macroalgae species observed in Vejle's inner and outer fjord within the specified depth intervals in the time period 2009-2012 (Data from The Danish Nature Agency's monitoring program) (Nielsen et al., 2015). Also, refer to Appendix 13 on the list of seaweeds available in Vejle Fjord. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Seaweed scale node). 

  • Figure 113. (Top image) “Kongens Kær” is an artificial wetland created to provide habitats for animals, and recreational activities, filter pollutants before being flushed to the fjord (Naturstyrelsen, 2022) and a place to hold excess water in cloudburst events. Wetlands are part of blue-green infrastructures in Vejle. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2021), Visit Vejle (n.d.), Miljøstyrelsen (2016).    (Bottom image) Vejle River runs through Kongens Kær wetland to meet The Nature and Wild Reserve (“Natur og Vildt reservat” in blue). The reserve was established in 1940 to ban bird hunting in this area. The reserve (682 hectares) includes some of Fjordbyen and part of the Vejle river (Vejle Municipality, 2019b; Miljøministeriet Naturstyrelsen, n.d.; Bekendtgørelse om Vejle Inderfjord vildtreservat). Image credit: Miljø GIS by Miljøstyrelsen (2016). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjordbyen scale node and Kumu Temporal map 2004– 2009 node).

  • Figure 114. Summaries of the main actions from Vejle Municipality’s storm surge strategy. Short-term strategies include increasing the protection line by 2m by 2025, medium-term strategies include enhancing the protection line by 2.5-3m by 2050, and long-term strategies include increasing the elevation to 3m by 2070. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020b). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjordbyen scale node and Kumu Temporal map – 2025, 2050 & 2070 node).

  • Figure 115. A diagram of my involvement in the different processes in Kanten/The Edge competition. The four winning proposals are the main data to be analysed in this chapter (with brief mentions of the unsuccessful entries). *It is important to note that the multiscalar Kumu mappings have been done throughout the whole process of engaging with Kanten/The Edge’s three phases. Therefore, the analysis of the winning proposals throughout this section 4.1.1 has also been informed by the learnings Kumu mapping process (see sections 4.1.2 to 4.1.7) running in parallel.

  • Figure 116. The winning entry’s submission of x2 A1 boards of the two main zones (the urban zone and the nature zone) and x2 physical models as per requirement (they also need to submit a booklet of their ideas in writing). Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Josephine Philipsen, Luisa Brando, and Andres Hernandez (photos of the physical models taken by the author on 13/08/20). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 117. The main overarching concept is the idea of a membrane that allows the flow between nature above the water to the city and nature under the water. The membrane also signifies a connection between marine life (i.e. fish) and human residents of Vejle. Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Josephine Philipsen, Luisa Brando and Andres Hernandez. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node). 

  • Figure 118. Visualisations for the Urban Zone. The intention of the design is that as the water level rises, the stone landscape out into the water also grows with time. Various platforms, benches and staircases allow the meeting between human and nonhuman subjects. Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Josephine Philipsen, Luisa Brando, and Andres Hernandez. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 119. Visualisations for the Nature Zone. The design intends to accommodate more water as the sea level rises. Various rock pools and timber walkways allow engagement with the water and marine life. Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Josephine Philipsen, Luisa Brando, and Andres Hernandez.  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).


  • Figure 120. (Top image) “Membrane - Another perspective on the water. Invite the water and nature’s solutions” (translate). Proposal for the Urban and Nature zone.  (Bottom image) A conceptual illustration of the entire master plan of Fjordbyen as a wet district able to accommodate the increase in water in the future.  Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Josephine Philipsen, Luisa Brando, and Andres Hernandez. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).​

  • Figure 121. Strategies for meeting the brief’s requirement both in the Urban and the Nature Zone. Translated: Point 2. Time and Adaptivity (rain and sea level rise). 3. Meeting place (microworlds come together with the help of textures and nature-based solutions). Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Josephine Philipsen, Luisa Brando, and Andres Hernandez. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 122. The winning entry’s submission of x2 A1 boards of the two main zones (the urban zone and the nature zone) and x2 physical models as per requirement (they also need to submit a booklet of their ideas in writing). Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Jonathan Houser and Jonas Lambert.  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 123. (Top image) The history of Vejle’s urban development, transitioning from a meadow and salt marsh (soft-edge condition) to the present land reclaimed and hard-edged waterfront/ harbourfront. They explore the future edge conditions, which is a mixture of recuperating the past coastal landscape and the present man-made urban landscape.  (Second-row image) The master plan for the future Kanten/The Edge that develops and grows with time as nature-based solutions take over the whole shoreline of Kanten/The Edge and infiltrate into Fjordbyen as part of the green transition of Vejle by the end of the century. The proposal includes many recreational opportunities, walkways, re-establishing rock reefs, etc. Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Jonathan Houser and Jonas Lambert. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 124. A plan of the Urban Zone that grows as the sea level rise over time. The visualisation is an ode to 19th-century Golden Age paintings depicting romanticised landscapes of Denmark. Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Jonathan Houser and Jonas Lambert. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 125. The section of the Urban Zone, where the landscaped embankments made of surplus construction materials provide coastal protection by growing with time while landscaping also envelops these concrete mounds. Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Jonathan Houser and Jonas Lambert. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 126. While the urban zone emphasises land-based planting (such as the row of trees), the nature zone has more sea-based planting, such as salt marshes and reeds. The marine biologist has commended the visualisation of the nature zone as an accurate depiction of what is likely to grow in these areas. The concrete landscaped embankments grow larger horizontally, hosting more trees and planting while protecting up to 2.5-3m. Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Jonathan Houser and Jonas Lambert. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 127. An extra physical model submission as a photo from gravel sprayed with plaster. The idea of this approach is that the mound forms its shape with material that is underneath and is expected to grow and change with time. Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Jonathan Houser and Jonas Lambert. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 128. The winning entry’s submission of x2 A1 boards of the two main zones (the urban zone and the nature zone) and x2 physical models as per requirement (they also need to submit a booklet of their ideas in writing). Image credit: Vejle Municipality and Gamborg/Magnussen (photos of the physical models taken by the author on 13/08/20). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 129. A geometric hard membrane inspired by baroque gardens in the harbour zone. The floating membrane is designed to host gardens underwater, like the hanging seaweed. Image credit: Vejle Municipality and Gamborg/Magnussen. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).


  • Figure 130. An artistic organic formed geo-cell membrane that weaves and envelops the nature zone’s edge condition. The material is made of organic matter that disintegrates in the water with time, allowing the eelgrass protection and support while it grows and disappears with time. Image credit: Vejle Municipality and Gamborg/Magnussen. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 131. Images of the final A1 panels for each zone and the physical models of their entry. The undulating pink surfaces are for marine life to attach to in the water. Image credit: Vejle Municipality and SUPERFLEX/Baldios. (photos of the physical models taken by the author on 13/08/20). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 132. Based on the research on shipwrecks (“wreck biodiversity”) as a host for biodiversity, the images show different ways to increase surface area, porosity and hard substrates to accommodate the marine realm – as a house for fish. Image credit: Vejle Municipality and SUPERFLEX/Baldios. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 133. Illustration showcasing how this entry satisfies the major criteria set by Kanten/The Edge (i.e. A nature-based solution, nature over and underwater, Vejle’s storm surge strategy and another perspective of the water). Image credit: Vejle Municipality and SUPERFLEX/Baldios. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 134. Visualisations for the Urban Zone as a “Democratic Amphitheatre” for humans and nonhumans. Coastal protection is achieved through a stepped dike that elevates to a 3m level. Image credit: Vejle Municipality and SUPERFLEX/Baldios. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 135. Visualisations for the Nature Zone as a walkway that weaves through islands of wetlands hosted by modular pink elements. Coastal protection is achieved through a mound that elevates to a 3m level, and these wetlands are designed to provide wave attenuation and habitat. Image credit: Vejle Municipality and SUPERFLEX/Baldios. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 136. Images from their proposal indicate their approach of flipping the perspective upside down and viewing Vejle from the perspective of the water/fish. Image credit: Vejle Municipality and SUPERFLEX/Baldios. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 137. Their modular pink elements help rethink Kanten/The Edge conditions to provide resilience from storm surges while hosting a better meeting place between humans and nonhumans. Image credit: Vejle Municipality and SUPERFLEX/Baldios. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 138. (Top-row and second-row images) The proposal for the urban zone by Atelier Entropic from Spain. The proposal is called “The Floating Gardens”, with floating islands connected by pathways as the main design concept. Image credit: Vejle Municipality and Atelier Entropic (2020).   (Bottom Left image) The proposal is called “Vadestedet”, with islands impeding the already compromised water, sediment, and nutrient flow in the inner fjord. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (the author of this entry is unknown). (Bottom Right image) The proposal is called “Bøgespejlet” (Beech tree mirror), where it proposes a semi-circle extension of the land-based forest into the inner fjords to make it narrower in width, further compromising its current poor water circulation, radically altering the hydrology and sediment flows of the area, which will have a negative consequence on the marine life and water quality. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (the author of this entry is unknown). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 139. The proposal for the Nature Zone with undulating pathways and rockpools. An example of a project that impedes the hydrological flow of the fjord. Image credit: Vejle Municipality and Atelier Entropic (2020). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).


  • Figure 140. The proposal is called “Hvor er Kanten?” (Where is the Edge?) features extending the existing tree planting in the harbour zone on a raised mound with ring lights that light as the sea level rises. The trees are encased in a membrane that protects them from saltwater intrusion. It seems like an unnecessary cost for infrastructure required to keep these trees alive against their natural habitat of dry land. It could be considered an example of terrestrial bias. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (the author of this entry is unknown). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 141. The proposal is called “En selvgroet stormflodssikring” (A self-grown storm surge protection), proposes floating pavilions with hanging blue mussels on lines and an eelgrass plantation below, which would not work from a marine perspective as they will have limited access to sunlight, and the faeces of the blue mussels over the eelgrass will stifle its growth. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (the author of this entry is unknown). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 142. (Top image) The proposal resembles typical waterfront spaces in coastal cities of Denmark via stepped concrete bulkheads and fountains (referencing the artist Piet Hein’s fountain that exists on Aarhus’ waterfront, as shown in the image below). Vejle Municipality (the author of this entry is unknown). (Middle image) Another proposal that resembles typical waterfront spaces in coastal cities of Denmark is similar to the one above. The judges favoured the current status quo of waterfront areas with lots of concrete, favouring terrestrial plants, and little thought to integrating marine life into the urban realm. Vejle Municipality (the author of this entry is unknown). (Bottom image) Some of the entries emulate the current status quo of urban waterfront design, like in the city of Aarhus. Image credit: Taken by the author on 17/09/21. (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten/The Edge scale node).

  • Figure 143. Kumu map at a Fjordbyen scale and its relationship back to Kanten/The Edge scale. Fjordbyen is delineated by the transportation infrastructure, the railway lines and the motorway bridge, which has no relationship to the Fjord despite being called “Fjord City” (Kumu, 2020). The map is made with the data from Miljøministeriet (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – SS/SLR & Risk Map mini-node).

  • Figure 144. Photos were taken from various site visits to Vejle’s Fjordbyen. The maps are created by site analysis from a master thesis by Sørensen et al. (2017). The site photos were taken by the author on 29/07/20. Image credit of the walking/hiking trails in Vejle: Vejle Municipality (2021). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Atmosphere & Accessibility mini-node).

  • Figure 145. A predicted worst-case scenario of SLR of 0.9m alone will not wreak havoc in Vejle, but in combination with any form of storm surge (i.e. Storm Malik in 2022), the whole of Fjordbyen will be inundated (currently the tipping point of inundation in Vejle is approximately 1.6m+). 2.5m is the minimum protection level set by Vejle Municipality by 2050. The map is made with the data from Miljøministeriet (n.d.), Vejle Klimakort (n.d.) and SCALGO (n.d.).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – SS/SLR & Risk Map mini-node).

  • Figure 146. (Top image) Kumu map at a fjord scale and its relationship back to Kanten/The Edge scale. It encompasses six nodes, such as maps pertaining to land and water use issues, ecological status/condition of the fjord, the sea bed conditions, biodiversity and nature protection areas surrounding the fjord, and the location of marine vegetation growing in the fjord (Kumu, 2020). (Bottom image) The city centre of Vejle, where the river and the fjord meet. The fjord is divided into two main parts, the inner and the outer fjord, surrounded by three main municipalities (Fredericia, Vejle and Hedensted).  The map is made with the data from Miljøministeriet (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjord Scale node).

  • Figure 147. (Top image) Screenshot of the node “Land/Water Use & Ecological Status map” from the fjord scale isolated to show its connections to other corresponding nodes (Kumu, 2020). (Bottom image) Vejle fjord is allocated for various uses, be it land-based transport (bridges for cars and trains), sea-based transport (recreational boats and shipping channels for the harbour), area for resource extraction, marine nature reserve and for cultivating marine life (which is currently at a very small scale). The map shows the urban sprawl of Vejle City (in grey), the green forests enveloping the fjord in green, and the huge agricultural land surrounding the fjord. The map is made with data from Miljøstyrelsen (2016) and the Danish Maritime Authority (n.d.).

  • Figure 148. Screenshot from the Fjord scale node in the Kumu map isolated to show its connections to other corresponding nodes. (Kumu, 2020). Fifty-nine different species of macroalgae have been recorded to be found in Vejle Fjord based on a study by Lundsteen and Nielsen (2019a, 2019b). The maps above show representative red macroalgae, green macroalgae and brown macroalgae in Vejle with relevant information on where they are likely to be found, what conditions they require to grow, how big they grow and the scientific and common name of the specific seaweed specie. Some seaweed species are only found in the inner fjords, while others are only in the mid-outer fjord's deeper waters.  For a full list of seaweed potentially available in Vejle Fjord, refer to Appendix 13 (Lundsteen and Nielsen, 2019a; 2019b). The map is made with the data from Miljø GIS and a study by Lundsteen and Nielsen (2019a, 2019b).

  • Figure 149. (Top image) Screenshot of Kumu map of the Fjord scale node isolated to show its connections to other corresponding nodes (Kumu, 2020). (Second row of images) Vejle also consists of many other districts/boroughs surrounding the historical city centre and Fjordbyen. Image credit: Vejle Municipality. (Third row of image) Vejle Municipality’s conception of the Vejle Fjord in connection to its river valleys. Seeing Vejle fjord as an inter-connected water body. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2019). (Fourth and fifth row of images). Black-and-white terrain imagery shows that Vejle Fjord is a continuation of the river valley deep into the landscape. The water pushes inwards from the sea and outwards from the hinterlands through the passageways indicated by the deep structures of the land. Image credit: (translated from) Wiberg and Odgaard (2019).


  • Figure 150. (Top image) Kumu map at a watershed/catchment scale and its relationship back to Kanten/The Edge scale. It encompasses two nodes, such as maps pertaining to issues around the deep structures and geomorphology of the area surrounding Vejle fjord and the water catchment/watershed areas that determine the flow of pollutants into the fjord (Kumu, 2020). (Bottom Left image) The boundary of East Jutland has 19 municipalities, making up 24% of the Danish population (Odgaard, 2019). Image credit: (Odgaard, 2019). (Bottom Right image) Within East Jutland, Vejle is part of the “Triangle Area” (Trekantområdet) that consists of seven municipalities (Vejle, Kolding, Fredericia, Middelfart, Billund (Grindsted), Vejen and Haderslev, which is an inter-municipal business region. It facilitates collaborations between companies, municipalities, and educational institutions in this region. Image credit: (Trekantområdet Danmark, 2021).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Watershed scale node).

  • Figure 151. (Top image) Screenshot of mini-node Water catchment map from Kumu, isolated to show its connections to the “Pollution & Protection” mini-node from the National scale and “Land/Water Use & Ecological Status” mini-node from the Fjord scale etc. (Kumu, 2020). The map is made with the data from Miljø GIS from Miljøstyrelsen. (Second-row image) The map combines the major rivers, the catchment area for Vejle Fjord (shaded in dark blue) and Little Belt/Lillebælt (shaded in blue), against the municipal boundaries (in red), which bears no relationship to the water networks nor the catchment areas. GIS source: (Miljøstyrelsen, 2016; 2022c) and Vandløbsdata (Miljøministeriet Kystdirektoratet, 2018). (Third-row image - Left) The map shows the major fjords on the Eastern coast of Jutland and its main catchment/watershed area with its main rivers. The catchment area is for the Little Belt Sea (Lillebælt). The topography of the land (its deep structures) influences the size of the watersheds. The pollutants travel along the water networks that consist of rivers and streams that eventually end up in the sea. Image credit: The water and the land are coloured to clarify the distinction. Image from Miljøministeriet Miljøstyrelsen (n.d.) and GIS data from Miljøstyrelsen (2016).   (Third-row image - Right) The map shows the catchment area for Vejle Fjord (in red). GIS data is from: Miljøstyrelsen (2016). (Fourth and Bottom image) The bigger water catchments (i.e. Vejle fjord) can be further broken down into smaller catchments which can determine more tangible areas for designers to work with. GIS source: Klimatilpasning - KAMP (n.d.) and SKALGO (n.d.).

  • Figure 152. Screenshot of the Kumu map at a national water scale/network (Kumu, 2020). It encompasses six mini-nodes, such as maps pertaining to issues around the current ecological status of Danish national waters, its Marine Protected Areas, the history of land reclamation, the coastal areas at risk and their economic worth, a map of the current state of marine vegetation in Danish coastal waters, and the state-of-the-art (SOTA) projects hosted in Kumu Map 2.

  • Figure 153. (Top image) Screenshot of mini-node Economic values & Coastal exposure map from Kumu isolated to show its connections to other corresponding nodes (Kumu, 2020). (Bottom left image) A storm surge in Vejle occurs when large quantities of seawater from the Baltic Sea are forced into the fjord after a western wind storm has pushed water into the Baltic Sea (considered more of a “silent” storm surge event where the water level rises rapidly as the seawater flushes out from the Baltic Sea out into the North Sea). Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020). (Bottom right image) Map showing all the coastal cities with average to high property values, all the Coastal Directorate’s risk cities, the strength of waves and the coastal regions with low to high natural areas. Map made with GIS data from SKALGO (n.d.), Eva Sara Rasmussen, Faragò et al. (2018) and Tougaard (2006).

  • Figure 154. Screenshot of the Kumu map at a global scale and its relationship back to Kanten/The Edge scale (Kumu, 2020). It encompasses four mini-nodes, such as maps pertaining to issues around sea level rise, marine dead zones, global kelp decline and marine protected areas.

  • Figure 155. (Top image) Screenshot of mini-node Marine dead zone map from Kumu map isolated to show its connections to other corresponding nodes (Kumu, 2020). (Middle image) Map of known dead zones in relation to predicted changes in annual air temperature based on the intermediate A1B Scenario predicted to end-century (2080–2099) (Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008; Altieri and Gedan, 2015). (Diaz & Rosenberg, 2008; NCAR GIS, 2012).  (Bottom images) The number and size of marine dead zones have doubled each decade since the 1960s, mostly due to agricultural pollution. They are concentrated on the East coast of the U.S. and Europe (Spector, 2013).

  • Figure 156. (Top image) Screenshot of the Kumu map at a seaweed scale and its relationship to Kanten/The Edge scale (Kumu, 2020). It encompasses five mini-nodes, such as maps pertaining to issues around industry, anthropogenic, cultural, ecological and urban development as pressures that impact marine life – such as seaweed.  (Mid and Bottom image) A cyclic relational diagram (made in Kumu) of all the living and nonliving, human and nonhuman actors influencing the outcome of marine NbS in the inner Vejle Fjord (Kanten/The Edge proposals).  The cyclic process above illustrates the different factors that need to be considered to implement NbS with seaweed successfully. For instance, the crab and starfish populations need to be managed à ensure the predatorial fish population is healthy à provide nurseries for the fish through stone reefs and artificial houses à ensure the water clarity is good so that eelgrass/seaweed can grow and provide habitat for fish à ensure nutrient load from agriculture (pig farming) is limited à etc.

  • Figure 157. “The Ecological Pressure node” showcases the impacts of floating particles (agricultural runoff – Phosphorous and Nitrogen nutrients) (Seghetta et al., 2016). (Second row of images) Due to the ecological imbalance in Vejle Fjord, there is an exploding population of crabs and starfish. Marine biologists are proactively fishing out the local crabs to help minimise the damage to new eelgrass plantations. Starfish hinders Sund Vejle Fjord’s efforts to reinstate mussels on the sea bed and lines via floating buoys by eating through them. Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.).   (Third and fourth row) Sund Vejle Fjord project documented 70 hours of video scanning the bottom of Vejle fjord; it is mostly a lifeless area with mud and sand making most of the conditions. However, areas where eelgrass, blue mussels and rock reef have been reinstated are showing signs of improvement, where diverse marine life have come back. Due to the muddy sea bed condition of the Vejle fjord, coconut mats are used to ensure that the mussel beds do not sink to the bottom and disappear in the mud (Organo Quintana, 2020). Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.).   (Bottom row – Left to Right) Young eelgrass plantations are grown in containers to help them settle and grow bigger before being planted onto the seabed. Stone reefs installed in July 2022 are already showing signs of seaweed (Savtang, blæretang, Sukkertang) monitored in inner Vejle Fjord in November 2022, despite the fact that the water conditions are not good. Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.).   (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Seaweed scale node).

  • Figure 158. Screenshots from the Temporal-Projective Kumu map. The present-day node is presented in the centre (in yellow 2020+-) with the IPCC deadlines (in orange, 2030 and 2050) and Vejle Municipality’s Stormsurge Strategy document goals (in orange and red, 2025, 2050 and 2070) and other future timelines in red. The past nodes represent significant historical developments, such as the start of the land reclamation process of Vejle Harbour in 1842-1899 (in turquoise) and the recent waterfront residential development 2009-2018 (in lime green).  The solid lines indicate past connections, and the dashed lines indicate future connections.

  • Figure 159. (Top image) Kumu map illustrates some of the major periods in the past that influenced the current state of Vejle today, such as the birth of Vejle (1100-1256), its transition to a market town, the development of the harbour via land reclamation, etc. (some of the nodes purposely hidden for clarity and the years are enlarged). (Second row of image) The Kumu connection line between 1256 (birth of Vejle) to 2020 (present) indicates that the decisions made 766 years ago still have implications today, especially as Vejle deals with issues regarding the increasing presence of water (SLR/SS) (click on the connection line to open the left-hand side information panel). (Bottom left image) A Danish painting by Søren L. Lange of former Vejle in the 19th century with salt meadows and marshes in front of the town. Titled: “Vejle fra nordvest” (Vejle from North West) in 1823. Image credit: Lange (1823).  (Bottom right image) (Bottom row left image) an old map of Vejle indicates the first settlement on the highest point (islet) in the river valley where the stream and the fjord meet. Vejle town was surrounded by a salt marsh, meadows (eng) and bogs. Image credit: Dansk Center for Byhistorie (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Temporal-Projective map – 1256-2020 node and connection).


  • Figure 160. (Top image) Kumu node for 1842-1899, where Vejle Harbour starts to develop via land reclamation.  (Second row – Left image) History of urban transformation in the coastal city of Vejle in East Jutland, Denmark. The map of Vejle during 1842-1889 consist of large areas of green meadows at the bottom of the river valley. Source of map: Historical QGIS map from Miljøstyrelsen Denmark (Miljøstyrelsen, n.d.). (Second-row image – Right) The city of Vejle as of 2020. The grey shades are now built as impermeable areas that have replaced the former green meadows. The former urban shorelines in the 19th century have been extended in the 2020 map via land reclamation. Source of map: QGIS map from Miljøstyrelsen Denmark (Miljøstyrelsen, n.d.). (Third-row image) The mapping overlays Vejle from the late 19th century to 2020, showing the extent of land reclamation out to the sea and the loss of approximately 6km worth of “sponge” (i.e. former meadows) at the bottom of the river valley. The red fill indicates the replacement of former green areas with non-permeable development. Map created by the author with data from Miljøministeriet (n.d.). (Fourth-row image - Left) A Danish Golden Age painting called “Indsejlingen til Vejlefjord” from Wilhelm Kyhn (Kyhn, 1862) on the Vejle Fjord and the former salt marshes and meadows that used to form the coastline, which is now replaced with Vejle’s waterfront buildings. (Fourth-row image - Right) A photograph was taken of Vejle Harbour, seen from the West in 1897, with the earliest form of land reclamation. Image credit: A. H. Faber (Historisk Atlas, 2022). (Bottom image) Photo of Vejle waterfront area with residential, commercial, recreational and industrial developments. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency identifies Vejle harbour as “a highly modified area” (Miljøstyrelsen, 2022a). Photo credit: Vejle Municipality (Danske Landskabsarkitekter, 2020). (Extracted from Kumu Temporal-Projective map – 1842-1899 node).

  • Figure 161. The node 1940 and its relationship to other major nature restoration initiatives in Vejle: node 1940 (Vejle Inner fjord Wildlife Reserve), node 2004-2009 (artificial wetland construction) and node 2020-2024 (Sund Vejle Fjord) (not an exhaustive list). The dashed lines indicate how these efforts will continue to contribute towards improving the ecological conditions in the short-long term (e.g. Sund Vejle Fjord initiative is already showing signs of improvement). Moreover, all these initiative contributes to the success of future nature-based solutions (such as the ones proposed for Kanten/The Edge) and meeting future climate goals. (Extracted from Kumu Temporal-Projective map – 1940, 2004-2009, 2020-2024 nodes).

  • Figure 162. (Top image) The relationship between different periods of urban development and its contribution to future issues with water (i.e. IPCC deadlines and predictions based on the end of the century). Between 1842-1899 was the initial development of Vejle Harbour (which continued to grow in size), the 1970s the initial development of the marina (which continued to grow), the 1980s Vejle bridge and during the 2009-2023+ new wave of high-rise residential developments in the waterfront.  (Second-row image) Kumu node showing the relationship between the waterfront housing development and its future impact (economical) on the storm surge predictions for 2050 (especially at the current B-A-U trajectory by 2050).  (Third-row image - left) Aerial photo before the residential boom in the waterfront area. Image credit: (n.d.). (Third-row image – right) An aerial photo during the boom (more apartment complexes have been built) shows new high-rise, high-end residential developments and recreational areas, such as the kayak club and the marina, as part of the waterfront development. Image credit: Finn Byrum (Næs Bertelsen, 2019). (Bottom row of images) Visualisation showing more conventional high-rise residential apartments (called “Havneøen”, translated Harbour Island) coasting approx. 4.5 to 16 million DKK (€600,000 – €2.100,000) in the waterfront area of Fjordbyen. Some of the new apartments are built, and some are expected to be completed by 2023. There are plans for more apartment complexes in this area in the future (Elgaard, 2018). Image credit:  Havneøen (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Temporal-Projective map – 2009-2023+ node).

  • Figure 163. (Left image) Engagement of the four major scales of the projective scenarios (screenshot from the multiscalar Kumu map). (Right image) The projective scenarios are hosted in the “short, medium and long term” nodes, paired against Vejle Municipality and IPCC’s climate deadlines.

  • Figure 164. Screenshot of the future timeline showcasing the potential future strategies for Vejle based on all the learnings from the past and present nodes. The deadlines for future strategies are informed by IPCC (i.e. 2030 and 2050) and Vejle Municipality (2025 (short-term), 2050 (Medium-term) and 2070 (long-term)).  The Anthropocene-Capitalocene node spans from the 16th century (refer to section 1.3 for when Anthropocene/Capitalocene started) to the 27th century (by then, most likely, it will no longer be the Anthropocene, but perhaps Chulucene proposed by Haraway (2016) in section 1.3).

  • Figure 165. Three major nature restoration projects (1940, 2004-2009 and 2020-2024 nodes) contribute to addressing IPCC’s climate goals (2030 and 2050), Vejle’s Stormsurge strategy (short term of 2025, medium term of 2050 and long term of 2070/2100) and Urban Seascaping’s strategy for coastal adaptation and green transition with a marine nature-based solution for Vejle.

  • Figure 166. (Top image) A map (watershed scale) of short to medium-term strategies that need to continue into the medium term until the issue of poor water quality in Vejle Fjord is in a good ecological state. (Extracted from Kumu Temporal-Projective map – Short-term node). (Bottom image) An example case of a wetland conversion in Weiliu Wetland Park in Wei River’s floodplain outside of Xianyang City, China, that serves multiple purposes as an urban wetland park providing recreational opportunities while providing stormwater/flood management and habitat for animals (refer to Figure 84, section 3.2.1). Image credit: Yifang Ecoscape (Landezine, 2019). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A Weiliu Wetland Park, China node).

  • Figure 167. Short-Medium strategy for the Fjord scale. The red fill line is all the nature protection areas (i.e. Natura2000 areas, Ramsar, Nature and Wild reserve and Nature Protected areas under the Danish EPA, as shown in Figure 79, section 3.1.6). The dashed red line shows that, where possible, the different current nature protection areas need to be connected together and envelop the shorelines where possible to improve the land-to-sea connection, extend the protection to the fjord and protect the rivers to help limit agricultural runoffs. The land-based nature protection areas on either side of the fjord are connected through the water under this proposal.  Image credit: Map made with GIS data from Miljøstyrelsen and kelp location maps from Lundsteen and Nielsen (2019). (Extracted from Kumu Temporal-Projective map – Short and Medium-term node).

  • Figure 168. (Top image) Thinking past edge conditions to a zone when considering water and marine lifeforms in coastal adaptation strategy. Kelp (brown macroalgae) is the “invisible” first line of defence against storm surge via wave attenuation (local testing is required to understand various factors that influence the performance of the kelp). In contrast, other seaweeds near the urban shorelines are a visual storytelling element of sea-level rise and the residents of the new urban commons on the waterfront. (Second-row - Left image) Sukkertang/Sugar kelp grown on lines close to the water’s surface, making them visible from above. Image credit: Tim Dencker (n.d.). (Second-row - Right image) A photo of various seaweeds (macroalgae) visible to the human eye from the shallow waters of Elsehoved Beach in Fyn, Denmark. The photo shows some of the most common forms of seaweed. The green seaweed is called “Sea lettuce (Søsalat)”, and the brown seaweed is called “Bladderwrack” (blæretang). The photo was taken by the author in July 2020.  (Bottom-row images) Sugar kelp/Sukkertang is grown on lines in Kalvebod Bølge in Copenhagen harbour. Image credit: Tim Dencker (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Temporal-Projective map – Short and Medium-term node).

  • Figure 169. Precedents of floating art installations as potential alternatives to floating buoys used for marine cultivation (currently, these structures serve purely a functional purpose, not artistic). These floating art installations could be designed with more marine themes (avoid terrestrial bias) to convey the story of kelp growing underneath as a way to tackle the climate change issues facing Vejle from a more unified nature-culture perspective.  (Top row images) Image credit: Titled: “Flydende Tæppe” (Flying carpet) as part of Floating Art Festival in Vejle by Tina Helen (2018). (Bottom row images) Image credit: Titled: “Bihar” (Tomorrow in Basque) in Nervion river in Bilbao, Spain, in September 2021 by Mexican hyperrealist artist Ruben Orozco (West, 2021). The intention of the sculpture that is periodically submerged due to tides is to encourage debate about sustainability and convey the message that people’s “actions can sink us or keep us afloat” in the face of climate change (West, 2021). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A Bilbao Spain and Vejle node).


  • Figure 170. (Top image) Proposal for the transformation of Fjordbyen into a much more aquatic terrain, taking inspiration from Kanten/The Edge winning proposals. There are several proposals for the new Fjordbyen in transition, as shown in the map (refer to the key). (Middle row image) An example of a projective depiction of an edge condition that allows the seaweed to transition onto Fjordbyen as the sea level rises (depth no more than 3m). Artistic sculptures designed to host marine life are scattered around the inner fjord, visible from above but slowly immersed as the sea level rises, showcasing the imperceptible changes visibly. Image credit: The Membrane team (Josephine Philipsen, Luisa Brando, and Andres Hernandez) and SUPERFLEX. (Bottom image) Vejle is committed to integrating art as part of the city’s identity and storytelling. The report “Invitation Ådalene i Vejle - River valleys of Vejle. Byen, Vandet og Kunsten City, Water and Art” by Vejle Municipality outlines all the art installations and projects that weave through the landscape, using the four main river valleys as inspiration to tell the story of water in Vejle (Vejle Municipality, 2019a). These artistic initiatives are well connected through hiking/walking trails throughout Vejle (Vejle Municipality, 2021b). (Extracted from Kumu Temporal-Projective map – Short and Medium-term node).

  • Figure 171. A photo during Vejle’s Floating Art Festival, with the construction of the high-end apartment complex “Bølgen” (The Wave) in the background (the first two waves were completed in 2009 and the rest in 2018). The intention of this image is to be seen in reverse; that is, The Wave apartment complex is in the process of being dismantled as it reached the end of its life around the year 2059-2068+, as part of the urban transformation of Fjordbyen. Image credit: Unknown.   (Extracted from Kumu Temporal-Projective map – Medium and Long-term node).

  • Figure 172. Kim Stanley Robinson’s bestselling fictional book called “New York 2140”. The book is well known for critiquing unbridled capitalism, unregulated financial systems, and free-market economies as the main contributor to global warming that led to significant sea level rise. NYC looks like Venice, but only the top of skyscrapers remains, and new ecologies have formed in this new environment. Book cover image credit: Illustrator unknown (Robinson, 2017). (Extracted from Kumu Temporal-Projective map –The connection node between 1256 and 2756).

  • Figure 173. The future scenario of 10m SLR in Vejle, where the entire river valley is inundated (shown in blue). The surrounding suburbs on top of the river valley are safe up to 21m of SLR (red outline), guaranteeing protection from inundation. A potential area for a new harbourfront/waterfront on land would need to be 4km back from the current Fjordbyen (outline in yellow). Map credit: SKALGO (n.d.).

  • Figure 174. (Top image - left) A visualisation of a contemporary city like Vejle underwater that marine life forms in the distant future will inhabit. Image credit: Image superimposed by the author from Vejle Spildevand and from katatonia82 (2021) iStock by Getty images. (Top image - right) A futuristic concept for a floating city that adapts to sea level rise is proposed for Busan, South Korea. The imagery contains floating buildings with artificial UV lights to grow seaweed, oysters, scallops, clams and mussels below. The project is a collaboration between UN-Habitat (which works on sustainable urban development), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), BIG Architects, The Explorers Club etc. (Wright, 2019). Image credit: OCEANIX/BIG-Bjarke Ingels Group (n.d.). (Bottom image - left) Reconstruction of Bronze Age German stilt houses on Lake Constance, Pfahlbaumuseum Unteruhldingen, Germany. These vernacular buildings are constructed on stilts. Image credit: Rufus46 (2015) (Bottom image - right) Typical forms of houseboats on the canals of Amsterdam. Image credit: AmsterdamWonderland (2016). (Extracted from Kumu Temporal-Projective map – Long-term node).

  • Figure 175. (Top Left to Bottom Right) A progression of how Kanten/The Edge expands out, starting from the importance of the shallows in addressing the need for access to sunlight for seaweed, which is impeded due to various anthropogenic activities. Kanten/The Edge site represents two edge conditions (urban and nature) and sees a “zone” as an area that expands out from the edge in the near vicinity. While the winning entry expanded this notion of a zone to include the entire Fjordbyen (The Membrane), the zone also should encompass the four major river valleys that all join and connects to Vejle Fjord. Furthermore, when considering seaweed as part of the coastal protection strategy, the site (area of control) expands to a mid-outer fjord area where kelp can be grown. Finally, in order for marine NbS to be successful, the main source of pollution needs to be addressed within the watershed/catchment area.  Image credit: Vejle Municipality, Teis Boderskov and Team Membrane: Josephine Philipsen, Luisa Brando, and Andres Hernandez.

  • Figure 176. The dark squares that make up the checkerboard pattern in this image are large-scale seaweed farms viewed from a satellite image. Along the south coast of South Korea, with a thriving aquaculture industry, seaweed is often grown on ropes, which are held near the surface with buoys, an example of a “production landscape”. Image credit: NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen on January 31, 2014 (NASA earth observatory, 2015) and LeafScore (Hollow, 2021).

  • Figure 177. The research (Part III) has explored various coastal adaptation strategies, concluding that there are benefits to the hybrid approach of combining both hard and soft approaches. The illustration is not to inform final design-specific solutions but an illustration of general principles of the Hybrid Approach developed for this research. Redrawn and redesigned diagram by Soo Ryu and Agnes Varmund (based on Sutton-Grier et al. (2015)).

  • Figure 178. An amalgamation of some of the projects mentioned in this research that is relevant in representing the first Urban Seascaping proposition. Image credit: (Starting from the top left image to the bottom right) Architecture Workshop, Scape Studio, Havhøst, SUPERFLEX, Timothy Beatley, DLand Studio and Rafi Segal, and SUPERFLEX. The drawing of “Interspecies Assembly” by SUPERFLEX (bottom right row) has been superimposed with red seaweed (the missing actor) by the author.

  • Figure 179. An amalgamation of some of the projects mentioned in this research that is relevant in representing the second Urban Seascaping proposition.  Image credit: (Starting from the top left image to the bottom right) Ayşe Erkmen, Architecture Workshop, The Membrane (Josephine Philipsen, Luisa Brando and Andres Hernandez).


  • Figure 180. An amalgamation of the projects mentioned in this research is relevant in representing the third Urban Seascaping proposition. Image credit: DLand Studio and Rafi Segal, Floating kelp system by Teis Boderskov, WXY Architecture + Urban Design, West 8 and Edit Landscape Architects.

  • Figure 181. An amalgamation of the projects mentioned in this research is relevant in representing the fourth Urban Seascaping proposition. Image credit: On the Edge of the Utopia (Karen Gamborg Knudsen and Kasper Magnussen), Sund Vejle Fjord, SuperRev by SUPERFLEX, Havhøst, Venice canal by Andrea Pattaro/AFP via Getty Images (Brunton, 2020), The Knot by Tredje Natur (n.d.), ECOncrete, Living Ports Project in Vigo by Jon Svendsen (2022).

  • Figure 182. An amalgamation of the maps in this research that is relevant in representing the first Kumu map: Multiscalar network map. The examples highlight the importance of engaging with a macro-to-micro scale in a relational manner. For Vejle fjord, it means to see it holistically with its connection to the rivers (river valley) in its coastal catchment area and its relation to the local ecosystem. Image credit (top right image): Vejle Municipality (2019).

  • Figure 183. Temporal-projective mapping looks at the relationship between urban development decisions of the past and the consequences of those decisions in the present and future times. Based on the learnings from the multi-scalar analysis (Map 1), potential projections about the future can be made. Image credit: The Membrane team for Kanten/The Edge and SUPERFLEX.

  • Figure 184. State-of-the-art projects in the second Kumu map show the nine categories that could be relevant in answering the main research question. They are art installations, coastal adaptation/protection projects, marine education and research centres, marine nature reserves and restoration projects, alternative policies and world views concerning SLR and SS and examples of B-A-U urban development models in coastal cities.

  • Figure 185. Photos of various seaweed-related activities taken from the Havhøst event at the Kattegat Centre on 01/07/20.

  • Figure 186. The photo was taken by the author of various seaweed on display in glass casing for the public during the Tang Festival on 02/07/21.

  • Figure 187. Photos from the workshop in Venice with the members of Algae Platform and Space Caviar. 

  • Figure 188. Photos from the field trip to Gyldensteen Strand with Cintia Organo Quintana’s biology students at SDU on 16/09/20.



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