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LIST OF FIGURES

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  • Figure 1. Diagram of this PhD’s associated research network, collaborators and case study city of Vejle (i.e. my involvement with Vejle Municipality and Kanten/The Edge design competition). My involvement and direct associations are the nodes that are coloured. 

  • Figure 2. A general structure of the PhD dissertation/monograph for the reader to follow. 

  • Figure 3. The PhD monograph intends to be read in digital format, especially for Part IV – research-through design via network Kumu mapping.  (Top image) - The screenshot of the main PhD monograph as a website version. (Mid and bottom images) – The screenshot of the three Kumu maps developed for this research. URL of the PhD website: www.urbanseascaping.com (hosted via Wix: https://ateliersoo.wixsite.com/urbanseascaping). 

  • Figure 4. (Top image) The impact of Storm Malik on the city of Vejle, the water level in the fjord peaked around 11 o'clock at 144 centimetres above the average water level, which is not enough to inundate the city of Vejle in Denmark but close to its tipping point (Anholm, 2022; DMI, 2022a). The current elevation above the normal water level in Vejle is roughly around 150-160cm (SCALGO, n.d.). Image credit: (DMI, 2022a). (Bottom image) Before and After Storm Malik’s photo in the town of Aalbæk, Denmark, where water levels reached above the ‘tipping point’ over the harbour pathway (Payne, Anker Pedersen and Fonseca, 2022). Image credit: (Bottom Left) Jørgen Larsen /ANB (Bernhus, 2014) and (Bottom Right) Inger Nielsen (Payne, Anker Pedersen and Fonseca, 2022). 

  • Figure 5. (Top left image) A map showing the 14 risk areas in the EU’s coastal directives (mainly concentrated around the middle of the South-Eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, outlined in a blue dashed circle) Image credit: Danish Coastal Authority/Kystdirektoratet (2019) and Miljøministeriet Kystdirektoratet (n.d.). (Top right image) The municipality of Vejle is highlighted in yellow, among the East Jutland area is in red. Image credit: Edited from Ita (2008). (Bottom image) There are four main Danish coastal typologies: Coastal typologies in relation to storm surge type (COWI 2017). From left to right: Type 1 – Deep fjord with river estuary (in Danish Tragten); Type 2 – Bay with elevated hinterland (in Danish Skålen); Type 3 – Bay with low-lying hinterland (in Danish Den diffuse skål); Type 4: Cliff (in Danish forhøjningen) Image credit: (Faragò et al., 2018)  (Information extracted from the Kumu Multiscalar map – National scale node). 

  • Figure 6. (Top image) Vejle faces several water issues from the fjord/sea in the form of storm surges (exacerbated by sea-level rise), rise in groundwater and the water coming down from the hills due to its location at the bottom of the river valley where the two rivers/streams meet. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020a). (Second-row image) A diagram showing the dynamic of the water in Vejle. There is water coming in from the fjord, which presses into the Vejle stream and also causes the stormwater drainage system to overflow and spill over. The water coming down from uphill through the streams spill over onto the land in a storm surge and cloudburst event. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020). (Third row) The Coastal Directorate's delineation of the risk area in Vejle in 2018 in blue shows the entire river valley as a vulnerable area to flooding. Fjordbyen is one of Vejle town centre's four main boroughs. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2020a). (Bottom image) A visualization of Vejle at a 100-year storm surge event in 2050 inundating most of Fjordbyen, calculated to cost more than 750 million Danish kroners for damages (equivalent to 100 million euros) (Vejle Municipality, 2020a). Fjordbyen, like many other Danish waterfront/harbourfront developments, has been undergoing major transformation; where the past decade, there has been continual construction of new high-density housing, businesses, infrastructure and recreational areas. These newly developed areas pose challenges from rising sea levels and storm surges and are critical areas that can be challenged for testing alternative ways to co-exist with water. Image credits: Vejle Municipality (2020a).  Extracted from the Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten and Fjordbyen scale node. 

  • Figure 7. The two zones and edge conditions were allocated for intervention by Kanten/The Edge design competition brief. The security line in Fjordbyen are green lines, and the two zones are: The Urban Zone (Havnepladsen – Habour Square) and The Nature Zone (Tirsbæk Strandvej – Beach Road). Image credit: (Vejle Municipality, 2020a).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Kanten scale node). 

  • Figure 8. (Top half of the images) Underwater photos from the Sund Vejle Fjord project to revive the fish population, reinstate stone reefs, restore eelgrass, clean the polluted water via blue mussels on the seabed and as floating lines. Sund Vejle Fjord mainly works with areas closer to the coastline, in the mid-outer part of the Vejle fjord, where it is less prone to eutrophication and shows more signs of life as the shallow depth allows the marine life forms better access to sunlight. Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.).  (Bottom half of the images) 70-hour underwater footage from the Sund Vejle Fjord project largely shows the condition of the Vejle fjord as a dark, largely lifeless, muddy desert with old fishing lines and an unbalanced food chain.  Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjord scale node). 

  • Figure 9. (Top left image) Current projects by Sund Vejle Fjord to reinstate the stone reefs are highlighted in yellow. Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.). (Top right image) The current limited stone reef status (before Sund Vejle Fjord Project) in the fjord. Image credit: Vejle Municipality (2021).  (Bottom image) Most forms of coastal vegetation are sparsely spread out in the shallower waters near the coastline. Image credit: DHI (2019). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjord scale node). 

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  • Figure 10. (Top image) The sediment map of Vejle fjord shows that it is largely a mud substrate making it difficult for marine life to grow (the mud also makes it easily murky when it rains). Maps created by Soo Ryu, GIS data from: GEUS Dataverse (Jakobsen, 2022; Jakobsen, Tougaard and Anthonsen, 2022a; 2022b). (Bottom image) Vejle Fjord is currently in poor overall ecological status based on several quality measures (data from July 2021 (Miljøstyrelsen, 2021). The streams and rivers are based on data from June 2016 (Miljøstyrelsen, 2016). The fjord is in poor condition because there are agricultural fields surrounding the fjord (Hedrup, 2021). Maps created by Soo Ryu, GIS data from: Miljøstyrelsen (2016, 2021).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjord scale node). 

  • Figure 11. (Top Left image) Illustration of how coastal ecosystems such as seaweed depends on a certain depth below the sea (depending on water clarity) to access sunlight for photosynthesis and is sensitive to thermal stress (Dahl et al., 2003; Harley et al., 2012). Hence, many coastal ecosystems thrive at an ideal depth below sea level, which land reclamation projects have replaced (the shallow areas). Image credit: Dahl et al., (2003).  (Top Right image) Sugar Kelp (“sukkertang” in Danish) is brown macroalgae, which like many seaweed species, requires solid substrates like stones or rocks to attach itself to (Mouritsen, 2019). Therefore, they do usually not grow in sandy or muddy areas (unless they are seaweed species that float and thus are not dependent on rocks). Therefore, the removal of stones and rocks from the Danish coastline contributes to the lack of marine biodiversity. Image credit: The photo of the sugar kelp was taken from Aalbæk beach in January 2022. (Bottom image) A section drawing shows before and after the impact of the land reclamation process that replaces biologically productive shallow areas. The leftover areas are too deep for sunlight to reach, preventing the photosynthesis of marine vegetation such as seaweed. Image credit: Soo Ryu and Agnes Jarmund.  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Cyclic scale node). 

  • Figure 12. Various drivers in global kelp forest decline. The map was created by Soo Ryu, combining maps from various sources (Filbee-Dexter and Wernberg 2018; Froehlich et al. 2019; Gundersen et al. 2017; Steneck et al. 2002). Note: Unlike kelp, other seaweed types can grow on the equator.  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Global scale node). 

  • Figure 13. The overall ecological status of coastal waters in Denmark from June 2016 (top image) to July 2021 (bottom image) shows some signs of improvement (Miljøstyrelsen, 2016; 2021; 2022b). The maps show the overall ecological condition of coastal waters based on several quality measures with the nitrogen and phosphorous load on land. The poor condition is mainly due to excessive phosphorus and nitrogen load from agricultural farming. Recent efforts to clean up the coastal waters have shown some levels of improvement in water quality over the years. However, only a few coastal water bodies are in good ecological condition (as indicated in green). Jutland has a poorer water quality than Zealand due to a higher concentration of agricultural activity, as indicated by the maps. Maps created by Soo Ryu, GIS data from MiljøGIS (Miljøstyrelsen, 2016; 2021; 2022b). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – National scale node). 

  • Figure 14. Sugar kelp or Sukkertang (Laminaria saccharina) is grown on lines and buoys in Danish waters. There is scope to grow kelp forests in appropriate conditions to dissipate the strength of storm surges (Zhu et al., 2021). Several kilometres of dense kelp forests are required to provide significant coastal protection.  Local testing is required to understand various factors that influence the performance of the kelp. Furthermore, sugar kelp requires colder temperatures to thrive (less than the surface water temperature of 20 degrees), which is challenging as overall temperatures increase due to global warming (Boderskov, 2021).  Image credit: Teis Boderskov (Boderskov, 2020; Boderskov et al., 2021).  (Extracted from Kumu Temporal map – Long-term node). 

  • Figure 15. Rock reefs, in conjunction with marine life forms (e.g., seaweed and mussels), are used to protect the coast by breaking the waves and limiting the damage (i.e., erosion) to the land. While at the same time, it promotes marine life, such as providing a habitat for seaweed, mussels and fish. Image credit: Søren Winther Nørbæk (Aaberg, 2021).  (Extracted from Kumu Temporal map – Short-term node). 

  • Figure 16. According to the Australia Seaweed Institute (2020), “Seaweed can remove vast amounts of excess nitrogen and carbon dioxide as it grows… seaweed can then be harvested for use in products such as bio-fertilisers, animal feed and bioplastics, delivering both an environmental solution and an economic boost.” Image credit: Australian Seaweed Institute and CQ University Australia (2020). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Cyclic scale node). 

  • Figure 17. A cyclic diagram of the blue carbon potential of marine vegetation such as eelgrass and seaweeds via photosynthesis. Image credit: ENEOS Mirai Hub, (2020).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Cyclic scale node). 

  • Figure 18. Photos of the information displayed from the Kattegat Centre in Grenå, Denmark, on seaweeds. The image was taken by the author on 01/07/20. 

  • Figure 19. (Top left image) Showcasing the unknown aesthetic qualities of seaweed by artist/photographer Josie Iselin (Iselin, 2019).  (Top right image) The artist Julia Lohmann in Finland works with seaweed as part of her artworks. Image credit: Julia Lohmann (Lohmann, 2013; Todd Hart Design, 2014). (Middle row image) Victorian women dry pressing seaweed during the Victorian era. Image credit: The Natural History Museum, London (Oatman-Stanford, 2013). (Bottom image) Various dry pressed seaweeds (called macroalgae) from the coast of East Jutland (near Grenå), Denmark, by the author on July 2020 (from the workshop in Kattegat Centre, see Appendix 11: Notes and photos from workshops, meetings, events, field trips and festivals). Some of the seaweed species shown are (captured within A4 page): Red macroalgae – Blomkålstang (Irish moss), Søl (Dulse), Blodrøde ribbeblad (Sea beech), Rødkløft (Discoid fork weed). Brown macroalgae – Blæretang (Bladderwrack), Butblæret Sagassotang (Japanese wireweed). Green macroalgae – Søsalat and Rørhinde (Sea lettuce). There are over 350-400 different types of seaweed (three main categorisations of seaweed: red, green and brown) in Denmark (Lundsteen and Nielsen, 2019a, 2019b). 

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  • Figure 20. (Top row of images) Marine Education Center in Malmö (Marint Kunskapcenter in Swedish). It was finished in 2017 to teach people about ocean literacy. Image credit: Nord Architects (Mairs, 2014; Nord Architects, 2022) (Bottom row of images - Left) A photo of the water tanks inside the Marine Education Centre taken by the author on a site visit on 23/11/19. (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Marine Education Centre in Malmo, Sweden node). 

  • Figure 21. (First and second row of images) Visualisations of the “Bølgemarken” (translated as “the wave field”) proposal by Havhøst in Copenhagen harbour (built). The floating platform is designed to bring up the mussels and seaweed growing under the water to be seen, touched and eaten by the citizens above. Although this is not a large-scale intervention, this project is a structural (architectural) response to making the invisible marine realm visible, educational and engaging to the public. Image credit: Joachim Hjerl (Havhøst, n.d.; n.d.; Hjerl, n.d.). (Bottom-row left image) Havhøst/Sea gardens/Marine utility garden associations are gaining traction across Denmark (map), with sea gardens popping up in different coastal regions, as indicated by the map. Image credit: Joachim Hjerl, Havhøst in June 2020.  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Havhøst node in Copenhagen, Denmark node). 

  • Figure 22. (Top row images) Photos from a site visit to Vejle Fjord. Blæretang (bladderwrack) is one of Denmark's most common forms of seaweed. They are easier to spot visibly due to the air pockets stored in their blades, allowing them to float on water. The photo was taken on 07/06/22 by Niels Rysz Olsen (Arkitektskolen Aarhus, 2022). (Bottom left image) A photo of inner Fjord’s murky waters around Fjordenhus, an urbanised area of Vejle’s waterfront. Seeing anything below the water is difficult, especially after the rain. Image credit: Cintia Organo Quintana (Quintana, Kristensen and Petersen, 2021). (Bottom right image) In Venice, during COVID-19 lockdowns, which halted all motorboat activity, the sediments were able to settle, allowing the Venetians to see clearly the living organisms in the water/lagoon (i.e. seaweed, fish, sea horses etc.) for the first time in a long time (McLaughlin, 2020). Image credit: Andrea Pattaro/AFP/Getty. 

  • Figure 23. Various types of seaweed live in different intertidal and subtidal zones requiring different depths below the water due to salinity and temperature levels. The seaweed species that can survive closer to shores, such as Bladderwrack (Blæretang in Danish) and Sea lettuce (Søsalat in Danish), can be seen by the human eye. In contrast, kelp species are in deeper waters (subtidal) that are invisible to the human eye. Emerged plants (i.e. found in salt marshes and wetlands) are more likely to be visible to the human eye than seaweed species that are mainly floating and submerged.  Image credit: Top image (Lalegerie et al., 2020). Middle image (Carey, 2010). Bottom image (Water on the web, 2022).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Seaweed scale node). 

  • Figure 24. (Left image) An image of algal bloom (mass of phytoplankton rapidly grown in the water body as a result of eutrophication) killing fish. Image credit: (US EPA, 2013). (Right images) Excessive nutrient load in the spring of 2022 have resulted in an explosion of fast-growing algae (brown, long-haired) growing on the meadows, eelgrass, rocks and on the fishing lines with clams and blue mussels in Vejle Fjord documented by the Sund Vejle Fjord project. They have been casually and colloquially referred to as “skidtalger” (translated to ‘scum algae’) or “lortalger” (shit algae) by the volunteers working with the restoration project, indicating a negative reputation (Bredsdorff, 2018b; Sund Vejle Fjord, 2022). Image Credit: Sund Vejle Fjord Facebook Page posted on the 23/05/22 (Sund Vejle Fjord, 2022).  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Sund Vejle Fjord node in Vejle, Denmark). 

  • Figure 25. Vejle Fjordhave (Vejle Fjord garden association). With seaweed and blue mussels growing on vertical lines floating on buoys on the water). Despite all the benefits of these sea gardens, these buoys are considered an “eyesore” for the locals who advocate a more pristine and untouched view of the fjord, making it difficult for a larger-scale application (Boderskov, 2021).  Image credit: (Top left) Sund Vejle Fjord Facebook page (Sund Vejle Fjord, 2022). (Rest of the images) Vejle Fjordhave (Vejle Fjordhave, 2022).  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Vejle Havhøst node). 

  • Figure 26. A potential example of Urban Seascaping. A project called: “Ulsteinvik – Multigenerational City” to transform the city of Ulsteinvik’s waterfront and park area by Edit landscape architects from Oslo, Norway. The project proposes to design coastal landscapes that are integrated into the city for better human and ecosystem health. Area of intervention 2.7km2. It was in collaboration with various consultants, including Elin T Sørensen, a marine landscape architect. Norwegian coastal bodies have more favourable conditions for kelp, as shown in the visualisations (with more tidal flow, salinity, temperature and cleaner waters).  Image credit: Edit Landscape Architects (Edit, 2022).  (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Multigenerational City node in Ulsteinvik, Norway). 

  • Figure 27. Urban Seascaping as a neologism is a proposition and a concept to investigate the inter-relationship between humans and nonhumans, land and water in coastal cities. The use of “scaping” signifies the need to unify the current dualist reality by emphasising inter-relationality and interdependency. USS contributes to an emerging sub-field within landscape architecture and urban design/planning with references to blue and coastal urbanism. The potential role of a “seascape architect” (or a marine landscape architect) is redefined (in red) from the definition of a landscape architect in Merriam-Webster Dictionary (Merriam-Webster, n.d.). 

  • Figure 28. A diagram to illustrate a context-driven case study research. The context is in Vejle Denmark (East Jutland), looking specifically into Kanten/The Edge design competition and the Sund Vejle Fjord project that runs in parallel. The main methodological approach is Research-through-design via Kumu mappings (Maps 1, 2, and 3) informed by various methods such as interviews, site visits (fieldwork), literature reviews (also of state-of-the-art precedents), and stakeholder observations/engagements. The main theory driving the mapping for this research is “scaled system thinking” (systems-based approach), which is elaborated on in section 2.2.5. 

  • Figure 29. (Left image) The single case study context of Vejle has multiple embedded units of analysis (Yin, 2017). Mainly the design entries and interviews of winning participants form one set of data for analysis and involvement in the brief feedback and the judging process during Kanten/The Edge competition process. Image credit: Adapted from Yin (2017). 

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  • Figure 30. Excerpts from the field studies of Master students from Aalborg University of Vejle’s waterfront (called Lystbadehavn) and Fjordbyen area. These learnings have contributed to the site analysis for Vejle.  (Left image) Master student’s mapping of all the key areas, businesses and buildings in Fjordbyen. Image credit: Sørensen et al. (2017). (Right image) Master student’s mapping of all the key functions and atmosphere of Fjordbyen area. Image credit: Sørensen et al. (2017).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjordbyen scale node). 

  • Figure 31. (First row of image) Location of areas in the accessible part of Vejle’s waterfront where I took photos of the most visible form of seaweed – blæretang/bladderwrack growing on the hard surfaces throughout various times of the year during site visits (regardless, it is difficult to capture the seaweed underwater via photographs). Background image credit: Vejle Municipality (n.d.) and Pine Cone Project (n.d.).  (Middle row of images) Excerpts from the two books called “Danmarks Havalger” by researchers Lundsteen and Nielsen (2019a, 2019b), where there are maps of all the different macroalgae types that grow in Vejle Fjord along with details for their main characteristics and conditions for growth. The information from this book is translated into the excel table in Appendix 13. (Bottom row image) Similar databases (not as extensive as Lundsteen and Nielsen) on different seaweed locations and basic facts in Denmark. Image credit: Screenshot of the Naturbasen website (Naturbasen, 2022). 

  • Figure 32. A sample of the extensive excel sheet was created for all the living red, brown and green macroalgae in the inner (and outer) Vejle Fjord. The table indicates the scientific name, the common name (both English and Danish), average size, typical water depth, colour, invasive or local specie, etc. (See Appendix 13) based on learnings from Lundsteen and Nielsen (2019a, 2019b), Naturbasen (n.d.) and MarLIN (n.d.). This information is re-appropriated into a map that is embedded back into the master Kumu map 1 – multiscalar analysis (see section 4.1.3, Figure 148). 

  • Figure 33. A flow chart describing the various moments of design research from Prominski (2019). Urban Seascaping evolves throughout the different moments in this research. In reality, this process is much messier, with mini-loops of these processes starting over again, with various empty moments interweaving in between. 104

  • Figure 34. Examples of conventional territorial mapping styles used by municipalities and practitioners. The top image is a proposal by Aarhus Havn/Port of Aarhus to propose a “Blue Line”, a landscape-seascape project at the edge of its newly land-reclaimed harbour extension project. It makes the mistake of only indicating the green landscaping on land, while anything below the sea is represented in a grey singular plane with no indication of marine vegetation due to the new rock reefs. Moreover, the maps convey the bathymetry as flat contour lines, and the delineation of the extent of the map’s borders is orthogonal and does not include its connection to the wider context (sea-side). Image credit: Aarhus Municipality and Aarhus Havn (Bak Lyck, 2022; Aarhus Havn, n.d.).   (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Aarhus Bugt node in Aarhus, Denmark). 

  • Figure 35. (Top row of image) Google Earth street view of the ocean bed of Lizard Island – Parts of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia have been mapped by Google with divers and hand-held cameras, showing numerous marine life. Currently, only a few ocean beds have been mapped by Google Earth. Image credit: Google Earth (screenshot captured on 03/05/22) (Google, 2022).  (Bottom row of images) Two screenshots from the 70hrs of videos captured by Sund Vejle Fjord Project show the dead sea bed due to water pollution in Vejle fjord. Image credit: Sund Vejle Fjord (n.d.). 

  • Figure 36. Marie Tharp and Bruce C. Hezeen’s hand-drawn (physiographic diagram) map of the North Atlantic Ocean floor helped support the tectonic plate theory and ultimately challenged the way we see the seafloor as a continuum. As shown in the left-hand image, the centre of the Atlantic Ocean shows the rift valley due to the tectonic plates. The right-hand image indicates that the Canary Islands (in yellow) is essentially a tip of a mountain that is above the waterline, indicating visually that the land and sea are interconnected. Image credit: Marie Tharp (1957) (reproduced). 

  • Figure 37. (Top image) Topographic and bathymetric data of Vejle fjord. The different colour gradation represents different heights above and below the current average sea level. This type of topobathy map is useful when engaging with a site that concerns the boundary between land and sea. GIS data from: GEUS Dataverse (Tougaard, 2006). (Bottom Left image) Map of Denmark showing the continuation of height-to-depth relationship from land to the sea via topobathy. The highest latitude is shown in black on land to the deepest sea beds in light beige. The red areas highlight the coastal cities and towns.  (Bottom Right image) Map of Denmark showing the elevation up to 10m on land (in dark beige), which shows the most low-lying areas of the Danish coast. The depth of the sea is a degradation from the colour beige to dark blue.  Both maps show the relationship between the low-lying areas near the coast (i.e. coastal cities/towns), marking their vulnerability to rising sea levels and storm surges. The map is a good example of visually portraying the coast as not a line but a transitioning zone.  Image credit for both maps: "Det Lille Blå Atlas" by Wiberg et al. (2022).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – National scale node). 

  • Figure 38. (Top image) “The veins of a nation: All of America’s rivers mapped” by Nelson Mina. Image credit: Nelson Mina (Gordon, 2013; Mina, n.d.).  (Bottom image) My attempt at mapping all of Denmark’s “on-land” water bodies (streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, etc.). Water bodies are shown in red like blood vessels of a human body. GIS source: Miljøstyrelsen (n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – National scale node). 

  • Figure 39. One of the maps in the “Feral Atlas” project was led by Anna Tsing from the spatial humanities at Aarhus University and Stanford University in collaboration with artists and ecologists (Tsing et al., 2021). The nodes are embedded into various artistic backgrounds (highlighted in red and black dots) that host relevant content to each theme. Each node can contain tables, poetry, videos, maps, drawings etc. Image credit: Carr et al. (2021). 

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  • Figure 40. Examples of iconic network diagrams/maps that reflect systems thinking visually – interrelations of parts and whole. (Left image) The Hebrew “Tree of life” (Kabbalah) diagram dates back to the 9th century BC. It consists of nodes (spheres) symbolising different archetypes and lines (paths) connecting the nodes. The diagram is believed to represent life – i.e. relationships between God and the human psyche (very broadly speaking). Image credit: AnonMoos (2014) from Wikimedia Commons.  (Right image) Charles Darwin’s “Tree of life” (1837) sketch could be argued as one of the most renowned forms of network mapping, understanding and representing interrelations in a visual format. The sketch of an evolutionary tree is from his notebook “Transmutation of Species”. Image credit: Darwin (1837) from Wikimedia Commons. 

  • Figure 41. Screenshot of the initial data dump of everything relevant about Vejle, seaweed, coastal protection/adaptation, nature-based solutions etc., that are relevant in answering the research questions. The data include screenshots, hyperlinks to URLs and documents, and comments and arrows indicating their interconnections to others (organised in Miro, an online software). 

  • Figure 42. An example of a complex Kumu map of all the stakeholders involved with the Aarhus School of Architecture. It is divided into several categories (i.e. Aarhus School of Architecture’s different research labs, teaching programs, personnel/staff, and collaborators such as universities, municipalities, practitioners, experts and NGOs). The map changes according to the variable you set, such as isolating only the University personnel and representing varying degrees of connections, as shown in the second and the third image above. It can also run analyses to find the nodes with the most connections and many other functions (which can be represented via node size, as shown in the last image). It can also be categorised and tagged into various groups to work through overwhelming and complex data sets. Image credit: Kevin Kuriakose. See this Kumu map: https://kumu.io/BASP-2020/basp#aaa-research-mapping (instructions on how to use the map: https://aarch.dk/en/interactive-map/). 

  • Figure 43. There are three main Kumu maps. The main map is the multi-scalar map (i.e. contextual analysis centred around Vejle), the second map is the S-O-T-A map (i.e. mini-case studies), and the last map is a temporal map (i.e. projective and scenario-based strategies for Vejle). To access the online Kumu maps, visit www.urbanseascaping.com (password: tang), as shown in Figure 3.  Understanding the workings of these Kumu maps will make more sense in Part IV of this research. 

  • Figure 44. (Top image) Map 1 - Multiscalar map with the seven different types of scale/networks of water bodies bound by the four Urban Seascaping propositions. Each of the seven major scales (i.e. main nodes) is associated with “mini-nodes” that each contains various information that is relevant in aiding the analysis of Kanten/The Edge competition winning entries. The connection between the nodes is differentiated as direct connections/correlations are solid lines (coloured), and indirect connections/correlations are dashed lines (black). Each coloured circular node is embedded with maps, drawings, films, text and hyperlinks, which are shown in the left-hand panel that appears when you click on a node (as shown in Figure 45).  (Bottom image) Zooming into The Edge and Fjord City scale/network as the starting node and its associated mini-nodes. 

  • Figure 45. Showing the progression of how to isolate and see the various levels of connections of each node in the Kumu map. (Top row image) Showing the main national scale/network node and its corresponding mini nodes. By clicking on the mini-nodes, the left-hand panel displays related information, such as maps and drawings. (Middle and Bottom row image) By clicking on the arrows on the right side, the user can isolate a node and its corresponding degrees of connection degrees or by hovering over the node with the mouse. 

  • Figure 46. Critical survey of the state-of-the-art projects worldwide and in Denmark. This map is a geographical aerial photo of the world with various nodes embedded with relevant information. These nodes contain different S-O-T-A projects and ontologies, categorised and marked with a corresponding USS proposition it adheres to.  For examples of the different S-O-T-A nodes, see Table 3 below. 

  • Figure 47. Map 3 is a temporal, projective mapping centred around the present time of this research, from the year 2019 to 2022, represented in a big yellow node for the city of Vejle. The map ranges from the initial conception of Vejle in 1256 to the present day (2020+-), mirroring this period all the way to 2756. Each century is marked on the vertical plane (i.e. 19th, 20th, 21st century and so on), while the timeline is presented on the horizontal plane. There are three major future scenarios: short, medium to long term, based on the IPCC and Vejle Municipality’s Storm surge Strategy report’s deadline (i.e. 2025, 2030, 2050, 2070). 

  • Figure 48. This timeline illustrates the long history of Danish coastal cities. For example, Aarhus was part of coastal market towns from the 1050s to the 1300s. Historic decisions on infrastructure and issues surrounding urban development still influence contemporary realities of coastal cities - even though the city has undergone a significant urban transformation. The timeline illustrates that the decisions made several hundred years ago impact the present; thus, there is a potential that present decisions could have consequences farther into the future than we predict (Wiberg et al., 2022). Image credit: Katrina Wiberg (Wiberg et al., 2022). 

  • Figure 49. Close-up view of the main structure of the temporal-projective map centred around the present period of 2020+- (in yellow), with the left-side nodes as past events (in green) and the right-side nodes (in red) as future scenarios, deadlines and projections. 

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  • Figure 50. An example of a time node (2009-2018 – see red arrow) has been isolated to show only its connecting nodes by hovering the mouse over it (or by clicking on the focus button on the top right-hand corner in red). Therefore, this screenshot only shows all the connected time nodes to 2009-2018, such as the influence and connection to the nodes: “1842-1899”, “1970s”, and “1980s” in the past. A dashed line represents future connections, such as to 2050, 2070 and 2100, which indicates the impact of the current waterfront development on the future predicament of protecting Vejle from a future rise in sea level and frequent storm surges. These time nodes address urban development patterns in relation to that period’s legal, socio-cultural and economic factors.  Image credit: Nils Rosenvold (n.d., n.d.). 

  • Figure 51. Urban Seascaping is a critical proposition and concept rooted in thinking from inter-relational and transdisciplinary perspectives. It is an approach to investigating the various inter-dependent relationships between city-sea (site/context/spaces), human-nonhuman (actors/stakeholders) and spatial-network maps (visual tools/ medium) in coastal cities. Urban Seascaping has a unique position of focusing on seaweed as the representative lens of the marine realm in the Anthropocene. 

  • Figure 52. One month into my research, a 120-year-old, 23m tall lighthouse called “Rubjerg Knude” in Northern Denmark was relocated 80m inland at the cost of 5 million kroner (€670,000 approx.) due to coastal erosion in October 2019. When it was first lit in 1900, it was approximately 200m from the shore, but it shrank to only six meters 120 hundred years later. However, experts estimate that the lighthouse, with its new location further inland, will only be close to the edge again in approximately 40 years. This lighthouse became a visual symbol of sea-level rise and shoreline retreat in the 21st century (Associated Press in Copenhagen, 2019; Miljøministeriet Naturstyrelsen, 2022). Image credit: Hans Ravn (Ritzau, 2019). (Extracted from Kumu S-O-T-A map – Rubjerg Knude node in North Jutland, Denmark). 

  • Figure 53. (Top image) Impermeability of the risk area Fjordbyen at the bottom of the river valley of Vejle. Image credit: Extracted from SKALGO (n.d.). (Bottom image) The areas in red and purple are associated high valued buildings in Fjordbyen that would incur high costs for damages due to SLR and SS. The left image is the cost incurred from 2021, and the right image is the economic cost associated with future damages based on predictions for 2100. Image credit: Vejle Klimakort( n.d.).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Fjordbyen scale node). 

  • Figure 54. (Top) The graph above shows the absolute mean water level around Denmark in metres for the years 1900-2100. The grey-shaded curve for the years 1900-2012 shows the observed annual mean water level measured by Danish water gauges, adjusted for isostatic uplift. The thin blue curve for the years 2012-2100 shows the IPCC’s best estimate of the mean water level in the North Sea for the RCP4.5 scenario, and the light purple shadow indicates the uncertainty of this scenario. The dotted line shows the Danish Meteorological Institute’s (DMI) estimate of an upper limit for water level rises for use in uncertainty calculations. To the right of the figure are shown the mean value and uncertainties for the period 2081-2100 for the four IPCC RCP scenarios as well as for the University of Copenhagen’s BACC assessment of the A1B scenario in grey (Olesen et al., 2014; DMI, 2018). Image credit: Olesen et al. (2014). (Bottom) Map of Little Belt (Lillebælt) Denmark shows the change between 1981-2010 and the future period 2071-2100 in mean water level (cm) for the high emissions scenario RCP8.5. Change in mean water level: 54cm and uncertainty range: 10-99cm (Pedersen et al., 2020; DMI, 2022a). Image credit: Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI, 2022). 

  • Figure 55. (Top image) An increasing number of wilder storms in Denmark (Class 4 in red – classified based on wind speed and strength) within 130 years from the end of the 19th century. The recorded storms and hurricanes average 15 per decade, ranging in various storm surge heights (DMI, 2022c). (Middle row image) An example of the growing storm surge risk is the coastal city of Vejle, where the range of storm surge could reach almost up to 3m by the end of the century. Image credit: Kystdirektoratet (2020). (Bottom row images) Two maps of the city of Vejle with the impact of 10-year storm surge events for 2021 and 2100. By 2100 the bottom of the river valley where the city is located will be completely underwater compared to 2021, in which the water barely impacts the city. Image credit: Vejle Klimakort( n.d.). (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Vejle Fjord node). 

  • Figure 56. A diagram showing the relationship between SLR and SS in its impact on inundating coastal cities in Denmark with Storm surge range for Little Belt Sea (Lillebælt where Vejle is). SLR alone will not cause inundation of coastal cities (even in a worst-case scenario), but SLR coupled with frequent and more intense SS has the potential to wreak havoc in a worst-case scenario situation. Image credit: Soo Ryu and Agnes Jarmund. 

  • Figure 57. The current elevation (1-2m) above the normal water level in the form of fortified concrete bulkheads represents the hard edge conditions of many coastal cities in Denmark, such as Aalborg, Aarhus, Middelfart and Vejle.  Furthermore, these typical urban coastal edge conditions are defined and segregated, the hard boundary between city and water that severs a closer and more tactile connection with the water and its life forms. The public space on the waterfront is mainly made of concrete surfaces fit for humans. Little consideration is given to terrestrial plants, and there is almost no designated space for interacting with the marine world. Image credit: The photos of the hard-concrete edge conditions of waterfront spaces were taken by the author in Aalborg (Top left), Aarhus (Top right), Middelfart (Bottom left) and Vejle (Bottom right) in Denmark during 2020-2022. 

  • Figure 58. Conceptual diagram of the way in which artificial structures modify ecological connectivity vital for coastal ecosystems (Bishop et al., 2017). In heavily built urban environments, these ecological connections have long been destroyed as the development of buildings and infrastructures in the harbourfront areas are prioritised over preserving coastal ecosystems (Pilkey and Young, 2011; Bishop et al., 2017). Image credit: Bishop et al. (2017).  (Extracted from Kumu Multiscalar map – Cyclic scale node). 

  • Figure 59. (Left image) Coastal nature is able to migrate landward as sea level rise, preventing coastal squeeze.  (Right image) Diagram showing an urban scenario where a rise in sea level drowns the existing salt marsh in front of cities due to the creation of a dike to protect the city from flooding.  Image credit for both images: COWI and Arkitema, 2021 (Ebbensgaard et al., 2022b). 

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