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To conclude



Chapter III has discussed the potentials and limitations of both the hard and the soft approaches to coastal protection and the issues with ocean sprawl as a continuing urban development model as the climate crisis intensifies. The research emphasises re-envisioning B-A-U development, retreating some of the high-risk coastal areas, and planning for softer dynamic zones that can provide more accessible and equitable public space on the waterfront/harbourfront for the citizens in the form of blue urban commons.

However, unless there is a radical transformation in the way coastal cities are currently built, used and occupied, it seems likely that the land-reclaimed waterfront/harbourfront development model is here to stay in Denmark. Remaining critical to the current B-A-U land reclamation as an urban development model for coastal cities, the chapter explored more conducive ways for coastal cities to coexist with the sea. For instance, marine nature-based solutions (NbS) have been explored as an important addition to the hybrid approach (i.e. where hard approaches cannot be avoided) that require further investigation and attention. NbS has many other benefits that can mitigate decreasing biodiversity and climate change via carbon sequestration. Therefore, more efforts must be made to prioritise, integrate and renew the blue infrastructure as part of the hybrid approach to coastal adaptation and as a key part of the coastal city's waterfronts/harbourfronts identity.

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