Gradient

DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS

  • Bathymetry:

    • The measurement of the depth of water in oceans, seas and lakes (i.e. with contour lines)

  • Bivalves

  • Bogs:

    • Bogs are characterized by their poor soil and high peat content. That’s why they usually do not support large plants.  A bog is created over hundreds or thousands of years. It forms when plants decays in a lake and fill it. This creates layers and layers of peat. Bogs are freshwater, and in spite of the large amounts of decaying plant matter, they are very poor in nutrients because of the slow rate of decay. Most of the plant life around a bog are fungi, mosses, and small shrubs.

  • Coastal Adaptation

  • Coastal Management

  • Coastal Mitigation

  • Coastal Protection

  • Coastal Resilience

  • Coastal Wetland:

    • Coastal wetlands are in coastal (transition) zone between land and sea where it is regularly inundated in fresh, brackish, or saline water all or part of the year that contains a variety of vegetation and animals that are uniquely adapted to those conditions (Hatvany, 2009). 

  • Dredging:

    • Bring up or clear something such as mud, weed, beds, soils from a river, harbour etc. 

  • Ecological infrastructure:

    • Ecological infrastructure refers to naturally functioning ecosystems that deliver valuable services to people. Within urban environments, this type of system can be amplified to help create resilient cities (Orff, 2016). Pg 220

  • Ecosystem services:

    • According to Encyclopedia Britannica: “Ecosystem services, outputs, conditions, or processes of natural systems that directly or indirectly benefit humans or enhance social welfare. Ecosystem services can benefit people in many ways, either directly or as inputs into the production of other goods and services” (Johnston, 2018).

  • Eutrophication

  • Kelp forest:

    • Common name for a type of brown macroalgae (seaweed) – In Denmark these are sukkertang, palmetang and fingertang.

  • Land reclamation

  • Macroalgae

  • Macrophyte:

    • An aquatic plant large enough to be seen by the naked eye.

  • Multispecies coexistence:

    • Multispecies coexistence, multispecies future, multispecies cohabitation, multispecies response‐ability are some of the many terms that deal with the need for co‐existing with other species in a more equitable and mutually beneficial manner in the age of the Anthropocene. There are many scholars and proponents of this theory; one of the prominent scholars who made this term well known is Donna Haraway (Haraway, 2007, 2016).

  • (Salt) Marsh:

    • Marshes are usually defined as nutrient-rich wetlands which support a variety of reeds and grasses. These areas are consistently flooded with water. Many marshes are freshwater, and exist in areas with poor drainage—along streambeds, lakes, and ponds. Since soil is consistently wet from flooding, marshes are extremely nutrient-rich, and can support a wide variety of plant and animal life. Marshes can also be tidal, according to experts. Saltwater marshes are saturated every time the tide comes in from the ocean. There are some marshes that are fed by groundwater.  They also get saturated from rain water.  Marshes are typically not as deep as swamps.

    • A salt marsh is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides. It is covered with dense salt‐tolerant grass-like plants (Adam, 1993).

  • (Salt) Meadows:

  • Nature-based solution (NbS):

    • The European Commission’s official definition of NbS: “Solutions that are inspired and supported by nature, which are costeffective, simultaneously provide environmental, social and economic benefits and help build resilience. Such solutions bring more, and more diverse, nature and natural features and processes into cities, landscapes and seascapes, through locally adapted, resource‐efficient and systemic interventions… Nature‐based solutions must therefore benefit biodiversity and support the delivery of a range of ecosystem services.” (European Commission, n.d.)

  • Peat:

    • Sometimes known as turf, it is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter. It is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.

  • Shallows:

    • Shallows are watery landscapes perched between city and sea that are both biologically rich and socially significant. Many people are drawn to these places for the food they provide, the recreational opportunities they allow, and the protection they offer. Pg 230 (Orff, 2016)

  • Terrestrial bias:

    • Terrestrial bias is a situated perspective that responds to the fact that humans live on land, thus are bound by gravity and experience daily life as such (i.e. immersion in the air rather than water). This parameter restricts human thinking and experiences to the ones on land, thus lending to biased ways of thinking, perceiving and decision making to prefer the terrestrial realm as the norm. This can be problematic when dealing with the watery realm of the sea with differing parameters and conditions that requires human stakeholders to depart from the anthropocentric and terrestrial way of doing things (Jue, 2020)

  • Topobathy

  • Topography

  • ​Urban Commons:

    • The term urban commons represents shared material and immaterial resources (i.e. land) that belong to or impact the whole community in an urban environment (Hardt and Negri, 2009). It is founded on the guiding principle of equity that fundamentally reconceptualise how we view spaces and entities as something that affects all.

 

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