3.2 Departing from the status quo
The first part of this chapter (section 3.1) dealt with the current dominant approaches to coastal protection, adaptation and urban development models of coastal cities. While hard approaches certainly play a role in ensuring the continuing operation of coastal cities, it does not necessarily address the increasingly negative impact of climate change on biodiversity, GHG increase and water pollution, to name a few. Therefore, alternative approaches that provide the added value of climate mitigation, water filtration, carbon sequestration, enhanced biodiversity and coastal protection are explored in this latter part of the chapter (see Figure 81 on community and ecology-driven forms of waterfront development). These alternative approaches are not restricted to technological and biological responses but also emerging schools of thought and intrinsic value propositions that can challenge the current status quo of urban development in coastal cities.
Figure 81. Looking into a more community and ecology-driven approach, departing from the current economy and defence-driven approach (Al and Westerhof, 2018). Image credit: Arcadis.